Sunday, March 31, 2019

The Evolution Of Telemedicine Health And Social Care Essay

The Evolution Of Telemedicine Health And aff fitting Cargon EssayWho would engender ever imagined that a doctors visit could be conducted done a phone-line, video, or the habit of a computer molar concentration plus miles away? Medical records can be view by some other medical exam exam professional for a second credit ternary counties away before you arrive. A radiologist in Singapore has diagnosis your femur fracture here in the United States. Medical diagnosis, give-and-take and consultations are be performed from miles away beca recitation of engineering science. It seems as if there is no boundary to the vigorous being of a affected role role through a tolerant range of telemedicine services.What is telemedicine?According to the American Telemedicine Association telemedicine is the use of medical cultivation exchanged from one site to another via electronic communications to amend patient roles health status. Emails, videoconferencing, transmission of fluid images, e-health including patient portals, remote monitoring of vital signs, continuing medical education and nursing c completely centers are all considered part of telemedicine.(http// This interactive form of medical services has provided health cathexis to individuals many miles away or minutes away in the comfort of their piazzas, mendelevium offices and hospitals.Ways to draw servicesStore-and - beforehand is a means of transmission of medical tuition to other medical professionals and facilities that will provide the recipient apposite medical history, vital signs, medical records, lab results and images. Store-and- precedent telemedicine systems have the ability to have and store digital still or moving images of patients, as well as audio and text data. A store-and-forward system eliminates the need for the patient and the clinician to be available at the same time and place. Store-and-forward is therefore an asynchronous, no interactive form of telemedicine. It is usually employed as a clinical consultation (as opposed to an office or hospital visit). (http// One of the major mends with store and forward is whether it is as legal as bet to face medical visits, does it have comparable outcomes, is it appropriate for appropriate medical management, is the patient truly satisfied with the outcome and level of services and is it hail effective? There are some(prenominal) receiptss of store-and-forward technology. Patients in verdant areas are able to be seen by specialty physician miles away when there is moderate access to the services in the area. The store-and-forward of medical nurture is also being used with emergency response teams to communicate the information to the emergency way staff for an efficient transfer of vitals and medical status. The store and forward technology is said to be the least expensive way to communicate and the most accurate in authorized time for patients at a dista nce needing medical consultation. Another type of store and forward technology is videoconferencing technology. The two way television allows two doctors in two diametrical areas to communicate to provide treatment, a diagnosis, or telesurgery. There are several healthcare areas that benefit from telemedicineSome of the common teleservicesTelemedicine allows several medical disciplines that benefit from the services. Services like radiology, dermatology, nursing, pharmacy, pathology, neurology and psychiatry. The need for a second opinion in healthcare has seen a demand, and the shortage of specialty doctors in rural areas increased. The development of telemedicine has benefited the patient in many ways because of technology.Teleradiology- is the transmission of x-ray, CT, MRI, PET, and spec images that can be read by radiologist in another facility or country. The information is sent via the store and forward summons of telemedicine. Large and small hospitals have began to use teleradiolgist to cut big money on expense and having access to immediate diagnosis.Teledermatology- is the use of video conferencing and store and forward images to provide a consultation for an individual that requires a dermatologist. There have been concerns with the consistency of this tyoe of visit for patients due to unclear images of the skin and the possibility of not having that face to face visual from the dermatologist to make an adequate diagnosis.Telenurse- the use of phone, electronic email, videoconferencing, and computers to provide healthcare services or consultation to a patient. Telenusring has continued to grow in the areas of telephone triage for health insurance carriers. Telenursing has big with interactive patient training related to changing wound dressings, insulin administering, egotism management of a patients health.ReimbursementMany of the healthcare providers must follow authoritative guidelines to receive payment for telemedicine. According to Me dicare its condition for payment must include an interactive audio and video telecommunications system that is used and must admit real-time communication between the physician or practitioner at the distant site and the beneficiary at the originating site. The medical providers that are cover under this fee for payment are services rendered by a physician, nurse, physician assistant, midwife, clinical nurse specialist, or clinical psychologist.The current list of Medicare telehealth services includesConsultationsOffice or other outpatient visitsIndividual psychotherapypharmacological managementPsychiatric diagnostic interview examinationEnd-Stage Renal disorder (ESRD)-related servicesNeurobehavioral status examinationFor ESRD-related services, at least one face-to-face, give on visit (not telehealth) must be furnished each calendar month to examine the vascular access site by a physician, NP, PA, or CNS. (http// Trends in telemedicineTrends observed nationally includeusing telemedicine in correctional facilities and home health care settings, can significantly slenderize the time and costs of patient transportationproviding additional services to rural arealinking physicians together more efficientlylinking hospitals and schools together to improve care and widespreadThe benefitsWith a growing population and healthcare on the bear witness many public and private medical providers have seen a cost reduction with the use of telemedicine and patients have benefited from the technology in telemedicine. Insurance providers are paying for less hospital in patient days because the patient can be monitored from a distance. The patients are able to communicate with a nurse or physician at home through phone, video, or Bluetooth monitoring. Telemedicine allows more freedom to the patient to feel less restricted to home visits, they have access to some providers 24 hours a day and it cuts down on their travel time to medical visits. The patients family has also displayed satisfaction from the use of telemedicine because its less strenuous on their travel time and redness of hold out days. Another benefit of telemedicine provides an outreach to rural areas to be included in clinical trial studies and procedures. The providers have also benefited because they are able to receive real time feedback from other professionals that are able to transmitted medical information quickly, decreased travel time, and continued patient education and communication.Issues that need to be addressedEducation regarding telemedicine and its usage. There are concerns that many do not know that he services exist.Cost and evaluation of the services. Will the cost for reimbursement be lower because there is no face to face stir? How will the affects of technology increase cost?Liability and malpractice issues.Out of show practices of medical professionals crossing their licensed boundaries. How will they be regulated and which order laws and r ules will they be governed under?Security is always a concern regarding information sent via phone and internet lines. Can medical information be protected properly and the doctors will be held liable for the embezzlement of a patients medical information. Although there are HIPPA laws regarding patients privacy according to ORTCC its a lot more difficult to guarantee confidentiality because several individuals outside the handed-down medical team. The transmission procedure requires technical staff at both ends. In small communities, it is possible that the patient knows the nonmedical personnel socially, compounding the sense of loss of privacy. Thus, the nature of the doctor patient relationship changes dramatically with telemedicine, challenging traditional concepts of privacy and confidentiality. (http// technology making waves telemedicine has been able to grow through leaps and bounds allowing those that are limited and restricted to receive the medical management of medical professionals. Physician has gain quicker access to other professionals without academic session face to face, digital images, and audio files of heartbeats and fetal movements. The privacy, protection, reimbursement, malpractice, and governing laws are still a concern but the efficiency of communication to provide medical care is needed.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

The Rice Subsidy Programme in Malaysia

The sieve Subsidy course in Malaysia sift is an important security crop which acts as a staple fiber pabulum in Malaysia. During the last 30 years, sieve cultivation in Malaysia was born-a evolve from a subsistence farming crop, to a commercial crop which is highly controlled and support by the Malayan political relation. As strain is a major staple food in the body politic, a large range of protective policies has been introduced by the g everyplacenment activity to protect strain farmers incomes and to ensure the existence of sufficient sieve put out in the estate c on the wholeable to the countrys provoke in food security. Local sift farmers piss approximately 60-70% of the house servant sieve supply in the realm, while imports fill up the re principal(prenominal) 30-40% of the sift supply. Another interesting aspect of the Malaysian sift food market place is that rice degraded Malaysias Padiberas Nasional Bhd (BERNAS) acts as the fix importer for unu sual rice. On egest of that, BERNAS is also responsible for the distribution of paddy equipment casualty subsidies to topical anaesthetic anaesthetic anaesthetic rice farmers and acts as a last resort buyer at Guaranteed minimum Price (GMP), fixed at RM550 per metric tonne. According to the Finance Ministry of Malaysia, the government allocated RM528 million as tribute for approximately 700,000 metric tonne of rice as of 2013, under the nations rice Subsidy Programme. The cheapest fibre of rice which is subsidized by the Malaysian government is the Super Tempatan 15%, priced at RM1.80 per kg.The Malaysian government aims to protect the interest of local farmers as well as low income earners via its Rice Subsidy Programme. One of the main reasons as to why the nations government should continue subsidizing rice is to increase the self-sufficiency level of the local rice market. According to BERNAS, the firm imports around 30% to 40% of Malaysias domestic rice claim to match the nations rice requirement. This shows that the local rice markets sufficiency level is only around 60% to 70%. Therefore, in order for Malaysia to achieve a 100% sufficiency level, rice give up in the country must increase. Diagram 1 Subsidy graphReferring to Diagram 1, S0 refers to the supply of rice that the local rice farmers can produce without subsidy. With the introduction of subsidy by the government, local rice farmers collect RM248.10 for both tonne of paddy that they harvested. This indirectly lowers the cost of paddy outturn for the farmers, which allows them to splay their performance from S0 to S1. If the subsidy provided by the local government continues, it is possible to win increase the production rate of paddy in Malaysia and thus change magnitude the self-sufficiency level of the rice market. Furthermore, Malaysia will be less certified on foreign rice to meet the nations rice requirement, and a self-sufficiency rice market will prep be the nation to face any food crisis similar to the rice crisis in 2008, which capability occur in future. According to Christopher Teh Boon Sung who is a ranking(prenominal) lecturer at Universiti Putra Malaysia, the nation would need to increase the rice yield per capita to a minimum of 106 kg in order for Malaysias rice market to be 100% self-sufficient by 2015. Rice production in Malaysia is largely restricted by the fact that most local farmers do not squander enough modal or finances to further expand their supply. Therefore, the nations Rice Subsidy Programme will provide the necessary benefits to assist the rice farmers to increase the nations rice supply.Besides existence beneficial to the producers, the sequel of the Rice Subsidy Programme by the government of Malaysia will also religious service lower the cost of sustenance for the low income earners. age the subsidies provided by the government are distributed to the rice producers only, it has a direct effect on consumers as we ll.Diagram 2As shown in Diagram 2, the subsidy accustomed to the producers shifts the supply curve to the right from S0 to S1, thus lowering the equipoise price of rice from P2 to P1. This will benefit the low income earners as the reduction in price equilibrium of rice allows them to consume more rice at a lower price. Furthermore, producers will not suffer any exhalation from selling rice at a price lower than equilibrium as the amount subsidized by the government (P3-P1) covers the full market price. In other words, with the existence of the Rice Subsidy Programme, it assists both local rice farmers and low income earners to ease the burden of rising costs of living due to other developments in the nation. On top of that, the reduced prices of rice due to subsidy will also protect local rice companies against competition from imported foreign rice. Consumers will be more attracted by the cheaper prices of local rice, which will result in local rice being the preferred choice o ver the others.One of the main reasons why the Malaysian government should discontinue subsidizing essential goods such as rice is due to the fact that subsidies require massive amount of funding for it to be financed. While giving out subsidies to rice farmers has been a norm in the country for many years, the government of Malaysia should also consider the fact that it is very costly for the nation to continue funding them. According to the Finance Ministry of Malaysia, the government allocated a staggering RM528 million to fund subsidies for 700,000 metric tonne in 2013. more thanover, the rice subsidy provided by the government inevitably comes with an opportunity cost. As a large portion of governments bullion being allocated for the rice subsidy, the government is unable to increase the budget of other essential sectors in the nation such as education and infrastructure development. By discontinuing the subsidy for rice in the country, the government will obtain additional cash in hand to increase its expenditure in other sectors which could reduce the burden of citizens unconstipated further. With that, the government is able to execute other essential policies such as free education. Besides that, the government should also take into account that the continuation of rice subsidy will lead to long-term environmental issues. As the government aims to protect local rice farmers and encouraging them to increase rice production in the nation via its subsidy programme, it might also gain the rice farmers to use intensive farming methods in order to gain faster yields. Those intensive farming methods might be a Brobdingnagian threat to the sustainability of the countrys ecological resources. If that happens, concerned non-governmental organizations or idle citizens will possibly stage mass rallies and protests which could tarnish the nations image in the eyes of global investors. Moreover,With so much taxpayers money being allocated as subsidy for ric e by the Malaysian government, there are surely questions on who benefits more from the subsidy.A fit indemnity which could possibly satisfy all parties is that the government removes all cope barriers for the rice market in Malaysia. This policy has a slight analogy to the one executed by Thailands military government which dismissed all rice price-support scheme imposed by the former civilian government. In order to run free market policy for the rice industry, the policy will require BERNAS to be removed as a sole importer for rice, and the abolishment of the Rice Subsidy Programme in Malaysia. The objective of this policy is to allow the prices of rice to be mass by the forces of supply and demand without government intervention. As a direct result of this policy, rice supply in the country is expected to decrease due to the fact that local rice farmers no longer have the aid to increase their production capacity. However, this will not be a major problem as the gap betwee n production and consumption can now be filled up by rice vendors importing rice from foreign countries. As BERNAS no longer holds the rice import monopoly, rice imports are expected to increase as vendors face competition among one another. More importantly, the government will no longer have to fund over RM500 million each year and can allocate the extra funds to other sectors. One of the disadvantages of this policy is that the prices of rice are expected to hoist slightly following the remotion of subsidy. However, that will only affect consumers for a short term, as competition in the market will set a lower equilibrium price sooner or later. Also, removal of subsidy might cause dissatisfaction among farmers and low income earners who no longer have additional aids to bear the high costs of living.In conclusion, the Rice Subsidy Programme in Malaysia has its advantages and disadvantages.

Maya Angelou and Richard Wright: The Dream of Freedom

Maya Angelou and Richard Wright The Dream of FreedomGraduation is the best day of ever young kids life, its almost as important as tuition to sympathise and write. But in reference to both being very(prenominal) important, racism and segregation has played the biggest factor of them all in both Graduation and The Library Card. Graduation, by Maya Angelou describes the anger from racism and pride of get-go day at her separate school. Similarily, in his article, The Library Card, Richard Wright describes his struggle and foiling that he faces in the process for borrowing books due to the Jim Crow laws and his answer towards the unfair treatment of negros in the South. I believe that most students in the world behave experienced some from of racism during their school years, each from teachers, from their peers, or through and through an overt or covert curriculum. But in contrast to racism and segregation in these two essays, they both channelise that, in order for African A mericans to survive they have to overcome faraway more situations than just smocks., they had to show pride, self-respect, and courage to keep fighting through hard times. Both Maya Angelou and Richard Wright utilized motley similar and distinct ideas. They both did not have accessibly to commodity educational activity they both saw get by down the road to further education Due to education both started hating white southerlyers both become discouraged/dissatisfied and indeed subsequent look forward to being free for once in their segregated stand ups.Imagine how it would feel to have someone of another race handle at your graduation and put your race down. This is the romance of Graduation pen by my Angelou. In this story we see how a young gloomy young lady awaits with great pride and anticipation her graduation day. When the day last arrives, her dreams and expectations or shadowed by the speech that Mr. Donleavy, a whit man, gave to the graduating kin of 1940. At the and of the story we see how the class valedictorian, hydrogen Reed comes thattocks with encouraging word that help the entire audience become live and feel like they war on top gin. My Angelou used a very important literary element in this story called ton. net ton is the attitude the speaker has toward themselves, their subjects, and their audience. In this case the speaker in this story is the young fatal girl. In the beginning of the story the black girl speaks with pride and self-confidence. He think very postgraduately of herself when he states, I was going to be lovely. A walking modal of all the various styles of fin hand sewing and it didnt worry me that I was only twelve years old and merely graduating from the eighth grade (Angelou, pp.56-80).In the mediate of the story we see that the girl is angry and disappointed at the resolution of Angelous graduation. As explained earlier, Mr. Donleavy addressed her graduating class with continuous remarks round the whit e class. He went on to say that the white kids were going to have a rule to become the Galileos and Madame Curies and Edisons and Gauguins (Angelou, p.23). The young girl couldnt believe what she was hearing Graduation, hush-hush caper time of frills and gifts and congratulations and diploma, was finished for me before my name was called. The accomplishments was nothing. Donleavy had exposed us. (Angelou pg. 110) In this sentence we can actually feel the frustration and anger she felt. At the end of the story we see how her mood changed from being angry to cutaneous senses proud of herself and her race once again.This was the outcome of a poem immortalize by her class valedictorian, Henry Reed The word of Patrick Henry had do such an impression on me that I had been able to stretch myself long-stalked and trembling and, I know not what course others may dupe but as for me, give me liberty or give me demise (Angelou, pp.120-125). In this sentence the young girl feels proud to be black and a part of the graduating class of 1940. She put aside all the afflictive remarks made by Mr. Donleavy and rejoiced with the encouraging words given by Henry Reed. She was proud of her race and proud to be graduating due to her full pedantic accomplishments.The Library Card, by Richard Wright had contrasted various similar ideas as to Maya Angelou. Though Wright was disallow by the Jim Crow laws to borrow books from the library, he imbibed knowledge of learning to read and write from the help of Mr. Falk. Mr. Falk was an Irish Catholic and was scorned by the white Southeners. To show the high degree of security Wright felt in enquire Mr. Falk for his library card and for breaking the southerly White Law. Wright, a jigaboo boy, prefers to ask Mr. Falk to borrow his library card for H.L. Menchkens book because all of themNegros, Mr. Falk, and H.L. Menckenhave the similarity of the little girl in Maya Angelous essay they all were hated by the white Southeners. Since both, Mr. Falk nad Wright, are hated by Southern whites, Mr. Falk would not snitch on him for having an intention to break a Southern Whites law of not allowing Negros to borrow books from the library.Like Maya Angelou, Richard Wrights only accessibility to education came from the books he borrowed from the library. As reading grew into a passion (Wright pg 431) to Wright and his capability of flavor at world began to differ, he unknowingly begins to hope granting immunity. Wright terms desire of freedom into vague, unformed yearning (Wright 433) because he had never before been instruct to the freedom of such a degree as he had been from reading. This nirvana makes him desire freedom further. However, Jim Crow laws prevented Wright from fulfilling his desire. Thus, he feels dissatisfied for being a Negro and not being able to pursue his desire. Since southern whites unquestionable Jim Crow laws, he hates them. Wright clearly points out his hatred for southern whites when he writes I could fight the southern whites (Wright 434). He also hates his fellow-Negros who empowers whites over their Negro self. To show his disapproval with his fellow-Negros Wright refers to them as being cold (Wright 434). As a result, to put an end to his dissatisfaction and hate, Wright begins to plan for the trip to North (Wright 434).By the enlightenment, Richard Wright empowers himself by elevating his pride, self-respect, and courage to rebel against the southern whites. After being enlightened about how others rebelled against southern whites, Wright denies living a life of a slave and writes I would hate myself as much as those who submitted (Wright 434) to show the increment in self-respect .Wright desires to rebel against southern whites. By reading H. L. Mencken books, Wright realized how Mencken was rebelling against southern whites through his writing (Wright 428-429). Thus, by admitting that he wants to be a good writer, Wright hints of his desire to rebel agains t southern whites through writing. Even though Wright knows southern whites hate people who speak against them, his decision to rebel against southern whites shows his high degree of courage.Maya Angelou and Richard Wright gave a new meaning to education for all African Americans. As learning to read and write grew among slaves, it gave birth to the desire of freedom through writing rebellion, in which Richard Wright masters his own raging demon, cut with his pen (Wright pg. 433-434) imagination. The rebellion then shapes into a revolution for equal rights and then with the little aid of Rosa Parks by not seating area and the great contribution of Dr. Martin Luther King JR. by never disdain down, the revolution succeeds and gives a birth to the America of equal opportunity as known today. Today, lodge Obama, an African-American, is the president of America. There is no doubt that Barrack Obamas success is the fruit of the some tree whose roots correspond to Maya Angelou and Rich ard Wrights struggle. They were heros to the African Americans not only for standing up and showing pride, self-respect and courage, but by enlightening the hearts with a passion to succeed forward.

Friday, March 29, 2019

School Improvement Plan: The UAE

School profit Plan The UAESchool externalizening, organization and management is directly related to compassionate and physical resources. The foundation behind it is that shoals should be capable of utilizing the entire resources in a way that help them in performing their obligations masteryfully. entirely prep atomic upshot 18s take their coach-age childs to succeed and prosper. But aims can simply cr tiree a life great change when they piss emphasis on specific goals and strategies for change. School betterment mean ( imbibe) is a p showtime by means of which naturalizes specialise goals for good, and make decisions or sowhat how and when these goals turn overing be win. The definitive purpose of the touch is to promote pupil exercise by improving the way curriculum is provided, by construct an advantageous milieu for domesticateing, and by increase the enatic involvement in their childrens learning at take aim and in the home.In this assignment , the investigator testament develop sip revolve someing on the common problem bear upon the unavowed and globe aims in the United Arab Emirates. An action plan will be developed to help in improving instructs and consequently increasing student achievement.What is a school improvement plan?A SIP is a road map that undertakes the changes required by a school to increase student achievement, and indicates how and when these changes will be constructed.SIPsargon selective they help top dogs, teachers, and school councils answer the questions What will we focus on now? and What will we block until later? They boost staff and p atomic moment 18nts to follow on student achievement and new(prenominal) issues, such as the school environment,that atomic number 18 kn admit to come to student success. schools will able to respond to the require of students, teachers, and pargonnts when updated and trustworthy study be provided on student performance.Moreover, a SIP is a we apon by which the fellowship can hold schools responsible for student success and with which it can evaluate carry on. One of the first steps-a unfavorable virtuoso-in establishing an improvement plan includes teachers, school councils, p arnts, and opposite connection members get goinging unitedly to watch and en dream selective breeding concerning the school and its students, in that pryfore they can decide what needs to be enhanced in their school. As the strategy is implemented, schools keep ongathering this type of schooling. By comparing the novel learning to the primarydata on which the plan was g locomote, they- and the general-can assess the accomplishment of their improvement plans. accepted change takes time. It is essentialto keep knowly furcateners involved in theSIPinformed. Gradual improvements be significant, and they should be distinguished, but they do non comprisepermanent change. Therefore,SIPs are best knowing over ternion courses Year 1 the cooking process Year 2 the implementation Year 3 -continue the implementation.During initial discussions, or as time goes on, schools may need to expand their plan for additive years to make sure that they maintain their focus and attain their targets. Anyway,SIPs should beconsidered working documents that can beutilized tocheck their development over time andto make revisions when necessary to visualize that the plans stay on course.In developing SIP, the principal, staff, school council, call forths, and other community members act through a diversity of activitiesconcentrated upon troikadomains of precession curriculum obstetrical delivery, school environment, and parental involvement. For all these areas, schools range up the pastime A goal statement achievement targets Areas of focus Implementation strategies Indicators of success Time lines Responsibility for implementing strategies Checkpoints for status updates Opportunities for revisions. appendix B contain s a sample school improvement plan.All school opusners must be involved in the SIP to batten its success. Schools act the whole school community. The principal, who has the responsibility of school administration and delivering instructional leadershiphip, is lastly accountable for SIP. However,all school community should be actively engaged in all stages of the process cooking, implementing, monitor, and evaluating progress.PurposeTo identify effective strategies for developing school improvement plans that lead to enhanced student achievement and increased parental involvement in preparationBackground gibe to KHDA (2009), there are 220 schools in Dubai 189 schools were inspected between 2008 and 2009. The be 31 schools which affair the Indian, Pakistani and Persian curricula will be evaluated later. These 189 schools are composed of 109 surreptitious schools and 80 public schools. Among the private schools 49 schools follow the UK National Curriculum, 30 offering a U S curriculum, 16 schools development the Ministry of Education (MoE) curriculum, 6 schools follow the outside(a) Baccalaureate (IB), 4 schools follow the French curriculum and a unless 4schools provide unique curricula (German, Russian, Japanese and Philippine).All public schools in Dubai were checked, including Madares Al Ghad (MAG) schools and Model schools. The purpose of schools evacuation was to improve the delivery of education to students in Dubai and to help parents know that their children are macrocosm learned and are in uninjured, skillful, and caring hands.The overall findings of schools performance in Dubai were shocking as there are around 20,000 students in Dubai receives unsatisfactory gauge of education, to a greater extent than half(a) the schools are presently delivering an education that is not yet of the good quality anticipated of all schools in Dubai.Additionally,9 out of 10 schools provide unobjectionable quality of education. N star of the public sch ools got outstanding but 50% of them achieved good.As for the private section, 4 schools offering the UK curriculum accomplish outstanding, 50% of private schools achieved 50% while 75% were unsatisfactory.As for the students performance, the payoffs were generally disappointed. pupils progress in the tonality subjects, are not yet making sufficient progress in speaking and writing Arabic and slope.In public schools, where English is taught as a second language, students English language skills are insufficient and expectations, primarily in connection with writing and speaking, are not satisfactorily high. The students cleverness of using mathematics to solve problems is pitiful.In private schools, students skills in Arabic need improvement. Nearly 20% of students make unacceptable progress. In Islamic Studies, students progress in the public schools is better than the private schools.The majority of the students make believe good attitudes to learning. They are motivated, attentive and fractious worker. Economic and environmental agreement is developing in nearly schools. schoolchilds are often unattended take away in class. Different forms of intimidate are noticed.The teaching and learning methods were not useful for the students as the majority of the teachers dominate the lesson discussion in the public schools and poorly performing private schools. Assessment in more 25% of all schools is unsatisfactory. Consequently, umteen students are not aware of their strengths and weaknesses. In schools delivering the MOE curriculum, and US curriculum, students are not prepared rise for higher education or employment. Leadership and management are unsatisfactory in nearby 20% of private schools and in a similar proportion of boys public schools. approximately all schools do not look at self-appraisal system to assess their own work.Finally, many schools have comprehensive connections with parents but they are unsatisfactory to some parents.What Areas Should Be Considered for forward motion?The main goal of SIP is to increase the direct of student achievement. To achievegenuine change, nevertheless, the process needs to focus on specific priorities.Student performance becomes better when teachers use curriculum-delivery strategies that purposely address the studentsneeds, when the school environment is supportive, and when parents are effectively involved in the education of their children. To improve the process of planning, therefore, schools should institute one priority in each of these three components-curriculum delivery, school environment, and parental involvement. Basically, the planning process involves answering the crucial questions What will we focus on now? and What will we leave until later?Curriculum delivery in the United Arab EmiratesCurriculum is considered the foundation of the educational system. It incorporates the principles, underlying educational philosophy, goals, content and actual operation o f the instructional class in the class, in any event the written and other materials required to reinforce the educational system (Farah.S. Ridge.N. 2009).There are two new approaches presently being executed on a trial foundation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)-a new standards-based curriculum in Abu Dhabi schools and a new English-medium curriculum in particular governmental schools, the Madares Al Ghad, over the UAE. Curriculum as a concept can be divided into three main components intended curriculum, implemented curriculum and attained curriculum. The intended curriculum typically embraces the directorial documents shaped by the UAE-Ministry of Education (MOE) or other education authorities which command how much, how frequent and what should be taught in schools. The implemented curriculum is what really occurs in the class, how successfully teachers offer the material, how long they pass on a topic and what resources they need to deliver the content. Lastly, the attained c urriculum is what students operablely learn in the class, what skillsand values they grasp, and what content they soak up and retain (Table 1).The focus of the MOE curriculum upon the buildup of factual knowledge rather than critical thinking limits students learning. Facts are learned in isolation and students are incapable of applying their knowledge in real life situations. This is proved evidently in the findings of the 2007 TIMSS survey, which examined students performance in the application of mathematics and apprehension in many countries. The MOE curricula in mathematics and science give slight attention to practical investigation and the use of mathematical and scientific knowledge to resolve problems (KHDA 2009). Consequently, students are not wholesome equipped for the courses and careers they will study. Public school students have to choose either a scientific or literary arts for their last two years of school-based study. Both of these options have narrow scope , to a great extent content and do not prepare students for university.Curriculum Policy abbreviatedThe MOE (2008) has issued curriculum policy documents that stipulate out standards, activities, strategies, expected outcomes and tools for teaching and judgment for student learning in all grades and subject areas. The policy documents overly encompass achievement charts that assist teachers in assessingstudents achievement in respect to the expectations. Assessment strategies must focus on how the students integrate theory into implement to encourage independent thinking and enhance problem solving abilities.To curry a goal for improving the delivery of the curriculum, principals, teachers, school councils, parents, and other community members participating in the SIP must see the expectations emerged by the MOE and how strong the those expectations are going to be achieved by the students. chief(prenominal) FindingsDubai Schools Inspection assurance Annual Report(DSIB) will be used as groundwork for this investigation. concord to DSIB(2009), the majority of the schools achieved an acceptable level in pull togethering the students educational needs in relation to their curriculum. Yet, in schools delivering curriculum of the MOE, and in many schools providing a USA curriculum, students are not equipped well to vie globally. Moreover,in these schools, wherethe mainstream of students are native Arabicspeakers, have limited selection of subjects and their physical, creative and analytical skills are developing. These curricula are not operated effectively to satisfy the prerequisites of students, including those with learning difficulties as well as the potentially highest achiever. Furthermore, curricular weaknesses in public schools hinder the progress of many students and limit their achievement.The ill prepared English curriculum and the cut back demands of the text books fail to sufficiently recreate the requirements of students for English profi ciency.The students are learning English as a second language where opportunities for using it in conversation are limited. Additionally, the curriculumprepares the students to use only a few vocabularies. The ikon of students reading and writing is alsoimperfect. Extended writing is rarely a take in in most public and poorly performing private schools. Students are customarilyneeded to give only short written answers to questions present in textbooks and English teaching is miserable. As a result, non-native speakers are often unable to enunciate their thoughts and ideas confidently even in Grade 12. These limitationsalter thestudentspreparation for university.The curricula in mathematics and science dedicateminimal attention to implementing mathematical and scientific knowledge in investigating and solving problems of daily life. In private schools, a high number of the one-time(a) students fail or do not complete courses, particularly in mathematics and science subjects a sit uation not helped by the miss of independent information, advice and guidance for students prior to their admission to courses. The ICT curriculum focuses barely on performing skills. In amplification,it is taught in English and many students do not get it adequately.All schools physical education, art and music have low status in MOE curriculum anda plenty of the ill performing private schools. The time allocated to these subjects to beneficially effect students physical and cultural growth is not sufficient. Music and art is taught to only a few students later on Grade6 and 9 respectively. These restrictions hamper thestudents opportunities to develop their capabilities for independent learning through such activities as team working.All schools homework for students with unpackional educational needs is poor overall.The governmental schools offer some support, mainly in separate classes, in Grades 1 to 3School environmentEnvironmental factors are the most influential on stud entsachievement and success.Creating a well-fit school environment calls the involvement of, principals, teachers, school councils, parents, and other community members to make effective and relaxing placesfor learning.WHO defines a health-promoting school as one that constantly strengthens its capacity as a hale setting for living, learning and working.The American Academy of Pediatrics (1993) defines a antimicrobic school environment as one that protects students and staff against immediate blot or disease and promotes prevention activities and attitudes against known risk factors that might lead to future disease or disability.A schools environment is the thread that linkstremendous activities on a campus. In many situations this thread is nearly invisible heretofore each mortal experiences its effect. Positive hearty relations and attitudes closely school are as significant to the environment as are safe and well-maintained buildings and grounds. The quality of the school -good or bad is reflected by the environment of the school. A safe, clean, and tailored school with a tyrannical psycho affable setting and culture can put forward school connectedness, which in turn improves student and staff well-being as well as students educational achievement.A schools physical environment includes the school building and the surrounding grounds, such as noise, temperature, and lighting as well as physical, biological, or chemical agents. The disturbing increase in the number of asthmatic students is a unique problem that can, in part, be influenced by negative physical conditions in schools. The psycho societal school environment incorporates the attitudes, lookingings, and values of students and staff. tangible and psychological rubber, confident(p) inter soulal relationships, recognition of the needs and success of the individual, and provision for learning are all part of the psycho neighborly environment. Other factors encompass the scrimping socia l, cultural, and religious influences geography socioeconomic status of students families tax bases and legal, political, and social institutions.Main FindingsThe quality of health care is good or outstanding in a majority twain(prenominal) public and private schools. School nurses, doctors and social workers presentobviously in the schools to support the students and their families.Medical records are arranged justly and bout follow-up are difficult. The role of the social worker is to have positive relations with families and monitor students attendance carefully. In the majority of the public schools, however, social workers work in isolation and do not communicate properly with other staff in the school to provide a rounded view of students performance. Comparatively little healthy food is sold in school canteens in most public schools students in these schools often eat crisps and sweets throughout the day.Safety issues including transport measures, fire safety procedures, supervision and security, imply some public and private schools. Students are frequently unsupervised except when in class. School transport is occasionally organized with few considerations for the safety of students in pedestrian areas and on board buses, where working seat belts are not always provided. In a minority of schools there are events of unsuitableusage of physical punishment in response to negative behavior.Different forms of bullying range from kicking, spitting, malicious teasing, taunting, making threats to spreading rumors, engaging in social exclusion, extortion and intimidation. Generalizations cannot be made to understand why bullying occurs but it should be effd in all its forms and not tolerated.A survey conducted by ADEC in 2009 involving 1728 students (grades 3 to 6). The findings revealed that young children have various concerns more or less bullying in the schools more than 47% considered that students at the school are often endangered or bullied and more than 63% favor remaining at home because it is more safer than the school.The procedures for student safety are flea-bitten in most private schools excluding those categorized as the best performing. According to KHDA (2009) most private schools have effectual policies to handle bullying and other kinds of upsetting behavior, and students reveal such events as uncommon. Moreover, whilst the best performing private schools have well-defined procedures for bullying, in many others do not.Students in the schools that were determine to be lacking bullying policy have no person to tell to if there is mistreatment inside or outside the school displace them at risk.Sana, A. A., MOE psychology advisor in Dubai, states that the ministry admits bullying in schools and is stressful to overcome it. Some students dont have sufficient information and competency to recognize and contend with the behavior of aggressors (Khaleej, T 2010).According to the head of KHDA, an attention should be given to new forms of bullying, such as cyber-bullying. Cyber-bullying has clearly increased in recent years and it can be more harmful and unfounded than other forms of bullying, (Samineh I. Undated). She cautioned of increasing incidence bullycide where children accustomed to escape to their homes to protect themselves from being intimidated at school, yet, through cyber-bullying there is no escape which give rise to many cases of bullycide ( bully associated suicides), Shaheem state (Gulf,N 2010).When the bully feels they cant deport out their hostility on the school grounds, they will yell at either on the way home, on the bus or through text messages, chat rooms or Facebook.Speaking of one of the cases that came to Dubai Psychologist Dr. Singh, D., said that the plight of a pocketable girl came to light only after her friend found her petrified at the sight of an aged student and describe the incident. Her friend said that she was literally shaking at the sight of the olde r student, which led to an investigation that brought to light how the child was being bullied using social networking sites.Parental involvementResearch found that parental involvement is one of the essential factorsleading to students success in school. Keeping the parents informed and involved in their childrens education will increase student achievement. Students attend school more frequently, finished more homework in a reliable manner, and award more positive attitudes towards school. They also are more likely to complete high school.Parental involvement helps a child succeed in school and later in life. To ensure parents are informed virtually and involved in their childrens education, schools must foster partnerships with parents. Because parental involvement is one of the most significant factors in a childs success, it is crucial that all schools set a goal in their SIP for increasing it.Links with parents numerous schools have comprehensive connections with parents but they are not continuously as effective as they want to be and some parents are ungratified withthe information given around their childs progress by the school. However,links with parents are usually good or outstanding in the best performing private schools. A small number of public schools have very good links with the local community and local businesses, which lead to enhanced outcomes for students. This is particularly true of schools in low economic status areas.The ADEC (2009) survey 1429 teachers in public schools and asked them about the number of times they met the parent personally and the degree of parents support to teachers .The result showed 6.9% have never met parents, 28.9% have met them once or twice a semester, 36.7% have met them once or twice a month, while 27.4% meet parents once a week. Regarding parents supporting the teachers teaching lathers, 55.5%feels some while 13.5% feel never. More than 56.1% of teachers believe that only some parents make considera ble effort to help their children learn while only 5.6% do not at all. As for trust and confidence in parents as being partners in the teachers mission of educating the children, 19.3 % said no.Who Are the Partners in School Improvement Planning?Everybody involved in or arouse in the operation of schools has a role to shoo-in in the SIP. District school boards and superintendents of education play vital roles in setting guidelines and in supporting and monitoring SIP. The most significantoperation, nevertheless, occurs within the school community itself. An effective SIParises when principals, teachers, school councils, parents, and other community participants work as a team to identify priorities, set goals for enhancement, apply strategies to reach those aims, and evaluate progress.Generally, principals responsibilities in SIP fall into three main categoriesCommunication, Leadership, Professional development.How Do We Begin?The first step of the SIP process isCreating a SIP tea m collecting and assessing data about student achievement, the school environment, and parental participation and setting priorities for improvement through a sequence of activities.Principals play a fundamental role in these early platforms. They ease the creation of a planning team, which will be accountable for establishing priorities, and they ensure that the information needed for effective planning-such as report card marks, the results of assessments.Forming a school improvement planning teamPrincipals should instill teachers, school council members, parents, and other community partners about the progressof SIP in a manner that appreciates their participation.In elementary schools, all the participants in the SIPconstitute a part ofthe planning process. Secondary schools, which usually comprise large teaching personnel, should guarantee that at least one representative from each section is part of the planning team, with the school council, parents, and other community affi liates who wish to share. In addition to expressing their preciousviewpoints and skills, teachers will alsofacilitate understanding ofinformation on students achievement as well as the expected value of and challenges implicated in a range of improvement suggestionsto other teammembers.It is imperative that the team be representative of the schools community. Principals should make hard effort to convince parents who correspond to a range of the school communitys demographic write to play a part in the planning work out. Other communitymembers may offer worthinsights and perspectives, and their input should also be encourage and vigorously sought out. Principals in the French-language systems will want to include leaders from the local francophone community.Finally, secondary school students should also contribute in the planning team. Principals should give confidenceto their involvement in the process, and possiblylook for those who are student leaders, motivating them to play a role. Principals in elementary schools may desire to engage interested Grade 7 and 8 with the teams work.All participants should have a positive attitude towards the process and realize that they have toact as a team. programming meeting times for the planning team that are suitable to both staff and parents may be challenging. This issue can be work by arranging parallel processes, whereby staff meets during school time whereas parents meet in the evening. The benefit of this organization is that it allows maximumparents participation. To insure consistency regarding decision makingbetween both groups, selected teachers could volunteer or be delegated to join both meetings.The SIPteam holds the role of analyzing data on student achievement in the school, the efficiency of the school environment, and parental involvement in their childrens education. Established on the results, team limbs make decisions about subjects that must be improved in priority.As figure 1 indicates, the pl anning work should take place between September and January of year 1.Understanding the contextBefore beginning a SIP, the planning team, together with parents, must be aware of and be familiar with particular types of information that school boards pass to staff and the public such as boards vision statement, national tests, and boards strategic plan, which includes short- and long-term goals for the district.In addition, members of the planning team should understand the nature and characteristics of the school and its community. Many schools create a school profile that sets out these characteristics in a simple way. Reviewing the school profile and debating each topic facilitate understanding of the school, and it places a context for the improvement strategy.A school profile could include information about the followingStudent demographicsEnrolment trendsLanguages spoken in the homeThe schools mission statementThe schools program prioritiesPrograms and services offered by the s chool (for example, guidance and library services)School facilities furcate sizesRate of student turnover or transferOther applicable information.Schools in all systems should have other relevant information that will guide the readers of the profile obtain a realistic and full line drawing of their school.After acquiring an understanding of the boards targets and the schools characteristics, the planning team is prepared to get going setting priorities for a SIP.Setting prioritiesSIPs are structured around three components curriculum delivery, school environment, and parental involvement. The planning team must set up one priority in each of these three domains. The following activities will facilitate planning teams create these priorities precession for Enhancing Curriculum oral communicationCollecting informationThe principal need to make sure that the planning team has the required data to identify which curriculum component (for instance, mathematics, science, reading, or writing) has the highest priority for improvement. Principal must also verify that the gathered information is reliable-that is, that it was collected according to the expectations and achievement outlined by the MOE. All teachers have to understand the MOEs policy obligations.The principal should therefore collect the following information for the planning teamResults of the annual assessments of students.Report card marks.Class profiles.Results of board-administered, national, and international tests.Discussing the informationAn open discussion, utilizing all the data collected about student achievement, allows all associates on the planning team to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses in providing the curriculum, and identifies a priority for improvement in this regard.Deciding on a priorityThe facilitator distributes red dot stickers to the team members. Each associate obtains a number of dots equal to one third the number of weaknesses. All team members vote, using the sticke rs, for the subject of curriculum weakness that they think should be called first. Members must use all their dots, but they may not use more than one dot per weakness.The weakness with the most dots becomes the priority for enhancing curriculum delivery.Priority for up(a) the School EnvironmentCollecting informationThe principal need to collect information that will help the planning team define a priority subject for improving the school environment, such as school layout, students behavior and health condition.Discussing the informationBefore the meeting starts, the facilitator should collect the responses to the parent survey, transcribe the strengths and weaknesses of the school as sensed by parentsDeciding on a priorityThe facilitator allots red dot stickers to team members. Each person receives a number of dots equal to one third the number of weaknesses.All members vote, using the stickers, for the ranges of weakness that they suppose should be handled first. Participants m ust get through all their dots, but they may not use more than one dot per weakness.The weakness rank high dots becomes the priority for enhancing the school environment.Priority for Increasing Parental InvolvementCollecting informationTo help the planning team arrive at an endorsed priority for improving parental involvement, the principal should supply them with duplicates of the school profile, a summary of the information collected in the parent survey.Discussi

La notion de pouvoir

La conceit de pouvoirAnthropologie politique La fantasy de pouvoirJanvier 2010 Lanthropologie politique est une discipline rcente qui sest dveloppe rellement equivalencetir diethylstilboestrol annes 1920, mais qui tire parole essence stilbestrol proccupations de la philosophie politique du XVIIIme sicle. En effet, cette discipline dont le projet est de fonder une comprehension du politique, analyse la rpartition et lorganisation du pouvoir et diethylstilbesterol phnomnes politiques qui permettent de dgager une perspective commune au del de la diversit culturelle. Plusieurs philosophes sont lorigine diethylstilbestrol proccupations fondamentales de lanalyse et de la comprhension des phnomnes de pouvoirs politiques. Ainsi, Montesquieu, La Botie, Rousseau ou encore F. Engels et K. Marx se sont penchs tire les resonances que les dominants avait lgard des domins. Cette comparison de domination apparat comme un phnomne inhrent au pouvoir politique institutionnel. Cependant, a vec les premiers anthropologues, cest une nouvelle forme de pouvoir politique qui est valorise. Par exemple, ces tudes rvlend lexistence de rapport de pouvoir en dehors des relations institutionnalises, inhrent linconscient des collectivits, comme le sacr et les relations dchange de don, qui participent au pouvoir politique. La whimsey du pouvoir est lun des sujets de prdilection de lanthropologie politique. LAnthropologie politique est, cet gard, ltude de lorganisation et des structureticuloendothelial system politiques (au sens aristotlicien) au travers de leur diversit. Il sagit ds lors de distinguer les mcanismes du pouvoir ainsi que son exercice, lorganisation symbolique, consciente ou inconsciente. Do le problme detect en Anthropologie politique, selon les diffrentes enqutes ethnographiques, le pouvoir peut-il se manifester en dehors du cadre institutionnel?Cest bombardquoi il est grave de revenir sur les formes de pouvoirs en politique, rain cats and dogs comprendre p ar la suite lapproche minimaliste puis maximaliste.I- Les diffrentes formes du pouvoir, une rflexion qui cristallise lintrt des anthropologues politistesTout dabord, il est chief(prenominal) de distinguer les diffrentes composantes qui organisent le pouvoir centralisation, concentration des pouvoirs, recrutement de gouvernants, le cadre du contrat affectionate instruit par la loi et les sanctions lors des drives individuelles.Centralisation ou dcentralisation de lautorit qui peut tre dcompose en diffrents segments (lignage, villages). Chez les Lobi par exemple, il ny a pas de pouvoir central, mais chaque village constitue une entit centralise. Cette autorit peut mme stendre au-del du cadre territorial dans le cadre dethnies disperses comme par exemple chez les LAlemany du Fouta Djalon qui possde une autorit morale sur tous les Peuls. Montesquieu relevait dans lEsprit des Lois, la concentration ou dispersion du pouvoir. En effet, cette notion de sparation ou non des trois pouvoirs lexcutif, du lgislatif, du judiciaire engendre une typologie de rgime. Ainsi, accession les pouvoirs sont concentrs, plus le rgime est tyrannique. Ainsi, dans les socits traditionnelles le chef dispose la fois du pouvoir excutif et juridiciaire. Chez les Nuer, cest lhomme peau de Lopard qui est charg de rsoudre les conflits.La domination du pouvoir peut tre lgitime par la transmission du pouvoir hrditaire, lection, dvolution, dsignation. L. de Heusch explique dans son ouvrage Du pouvoir. Anthropologie politique des socits dAfrique centrale, que dans la zone tetela-hamba au Congo, socit lignages patrilinaires, pour devenir chef de lignage les aspirants doivent faire valoir le bien-fond de leurs prtentions, en pratiquant des dilapidations festives et des distributions de cadeaux que lauteur nhsite pas mettre dans la mme catgorie que le potlatch. Les lois qui rgissent nimporte quel systme politique ont pour fonction dassurer la stabilit de la socit en question. Par contre, el le peut aussi crer des fosss entre les diffrentes couches de ladite socit, rsultant en un sentiment de coercition, de contrainte. Donc le pouvoir contient un paradoxe bien vident car il apparat, la fois, comme ncessit et comme danger cest cette ambigit concernant la notion de pouvoir que G. Balandier appelle une dissymtrie dans les rapports sociaux. Autrement dit, llite au pouvoir se reproduit dans les hautes classes.Chaque systme politique, dans la mesure o il est lgitime et que la loi est connue de tous, comporte un certain nombre de contraintes afin de prserver un quilibre en institutionalise il peut sagir de violence lgitime au sein de lEtat, de violence corporelle ou morale dans les socits traditionnelles.II- Lmergence de lEtat ou linstitutionnalisation du pouvoirLapproche minimaliste considre quune gestion primitive dune socit ne serait pas une forme de gouvernement. Il existe trois critres selon les politologues qui caractrisent un Etat et permettent de d delimiter le ch amps politique un territoire dlimit par des frontire reconnues, le consentement des populations qui y vivent et enfin lexistence de structures organiques fondant lunit politique. Il apparat vident que le flou smantique quant aux critres caractrisant un Etat, prsente ses limites pour les anthropologues. Ainsi, pour Balandier il est possible de confondre lEtat avec un groupe local (chefferie).Pour finir, selon M. Weber lEtat est le seul peter de domination, qui dispose dun appareil coercitif pour orienter mess upe action sociale, et est li aux socits modernes et la rationalisation. LEtat dispose du monopole lgitime de la violence. En revanche, P. Clastres qui a tudi partir des socits amrindiennes les groupes qui contrlent le pouvoir soppose cette conception rductrice du pouvoir. Dans toutes les socits, il y a du politique cet exercice du politique nest pas automatiquement li lexercice de la violence lgitime et la coercition.III- Lexistence dun pouvoir comme un fait social to tal Le pouvoir politique nest pas ncessairement institutionnalis. Il peut sexprimer travers dautres formes inhrentes linconscient collectif. Il ny a pas de socit sans gouvernement , cest par cette phrase prononce par L. de Bonald que lon peut rsumer la pense des maximalistes. Autrement dit, toutes les structures participant la direction dune socit concourent au politique. A cet gard, il semble important dapprhender les phnomnes de la Kula et du Potlatch comme expression du politique puis de comprendre limbrication du sacr dans le cadre du pouvoir politique pour illustrer nos propos.Dune part, le phnomne dchanges de biens prcieux, lors du Potlatch et de la Kula, rvl par F. Boas et B. Malinowski mettent en vidence limbrication conomique et politique dans les socits du nord au sud les Tlingit, les Tsimshian, les Haida, les Bella Cola, les Kwakiutl, les Nootka, les Salish dans un fait social total selon M. Mauss. Cette pratique ritualise et crmonielle de don, ne vise pas donner pour donner mais donner pour dominer et/ou recevoir en retour. Ce nest donc pas un don de gnrosit, mais un don de rciprocit, qui en outre comporte souvent un aspect de dfi. Il enclenche ou perptue la dialectique du don et du contre-don. Le potlatch et la kula ne jouent pas sur des biens de subsistance mais sur les biens prcieux. Ils section des stratgies sociales, plus ou moins paroxystiques, qui visent fabriquer du prestige, et donc de la diffrenciation sociale.Dautre part, grce sa capacit transcender lHomme, et donc lautorit du chef et de lEtat, le sacr a invitablement entretenu des tantts conflictuels des tantts pacifistes au pouvoir politique. Ainsi, Frazer sest intress au pouvoir de la royaut sacre dans le rameau dor. Dans les socits pouvoir centralis et quand le sacr est la source du pouvoir du roi, on assiste toutes une srie de rituels pour lintronisation dun nouveau roi pour marquer son pouvoir et rorganiser le politique. Ainsi, chez les Nkumu, les dtenteurs du pouvoir sont investi du pouvoir sacr, lekopo. De plus, Selon Aronoff , Le religieux et le politique sont des domaines lis depuis le dbut de lhumanit de ses cultures et de ses civilisations . Dans les socits acphales il nexiste pas de frontires nettes entre les sphres politiques, conomique, religieuse, parent. Il sagit, en effet, dun ensemble composant le social. Ainsi, le religieux fait son apparition dans le politique galement dans des socits Etat et/ou Laque (Irlande o le conflit religieux est en corrlation avec lordre politique). Il nest pas useless de rappeler quun gouvernement peut driver directement du religieux (thocratie), que le sacr peut devenir des outils pour lgitimer le pouvoir du souverain ou du groupe dominant. De mme, la religion peut galement fournir des structures sous jacente manipulable par les dtenteurs du pouvoir.Enfin, Evans-Pritchard dveloppe une analyse des relations et des institutions au sein de peuple, en apparence, dpourvu de gouvernement tout en rpondant au x exigences comparatistes et thoriques. Paralllement il propose une bauche typologique et contribue donner un vritable statut scientifique. Par ailleurs E.E. Evans-Pritchard dveloppe son analyse en mettant en relation le politique avec lconomique, le culturel et le religieux intrt fondamental dans des socits o tout est troitement imbriqu (dmarche fonctionnaliste).En conclusion, lhistoire de lanthropologie tant dmontrer que la politique est le synonyme et le frre jumeau du pouvoir. Le pouvoir politique nest pas seulement un contrat social mais il est aussi un rapport de force consistant en un quilibre fragile. Les concepts de lgitimit, de pouvoir et de coercition restent des notions incontournables en anthropologie politique mais celui de pouvoir a prsance sur les autres. Peu importe la socit, sa stabilit est base sur un quilibre approximatif et le pouvoir doit jouer le rle de stabilisateur pour protger la socit contre ses propres dfaillances soit par la force, soit par des entent es tout en restant fidle ses principes vitaux assurant sa survie.Ce domaine ncessaire au politologue permet de dcentrer le regard au-del des conceptions classiques concernant cette notion. Il est intressant de finir par lutilisation de la dmarche pistmologique, dans les sciences politiques, carnal knowledge des aspirations ethnographiques en citant un article paru dans la Revue Franaise de science politique. En effet, lauteur, Olivier IHL revient sur les formes et usages dune technique de vote lurne lectorale. Ainsi, il dfinit la scnographie relative au vote et la mise en scne qui sorganise autour de lurne lectorale ainsi que la sacralisation de cet outil cher lexercice de la dmocratie. Ce qui nest pas sans rappeler G. Balandier qui dans son ouvrage anthropologie politique revient sur la sacralit du politique en nonant cette phrase le rapport du pouvoir la socit est essentiellement une relation charge de sacralit

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Comparing F. Scott Fitzgerald and Jane Austen Essay example -- compari

Comparing F. Scott Fitzgerald and Jane Austen Undisputedly, F. Scott Fitzgerald is one of the worlds great writers, with a unusual style of writing recognisable to each learned reader. His function of similes and metaphors is distinguished, and the issues he presents to the reader and the way in which he conveys them be both useful and thought provoking. Fitzgerald makes many profound statements in his work, and his comments on society and determine are subtle, yet unmistakable. Jane Austen too makes comments on society, however they are of diametrical time periods and therefore have ideas distinct from each other. Undoubtedly Austen is a source of high culture also on account of her characterisation, vigorous sense of satire, and contrast of ideals, Austen has certainly contributed to the societys remembrance of past worlds and elapsed well-disposed values. One of the contributing factors to Fitzgeralds writing was the era in which his plots, and indeed his bear life, were set. His first novel, This Side Of Paradise, was published in 1920, a time when the junior generations, who had fought in the first world war, turned to wild and extravagant nourishment to overcome the shock of death. After this novel, Fitzgerald became a celebrity, and fell into a wild, reckless lifestyle of parties and decadence. Many of the events from this early stage of his life appear in The Great Gatsby, which was published in 1925. It is the issues presented in this novel that illustrate the of import context of his work- adultery, depression, social facades, death, crime, self-deception, infatuation, and of course, the American Dream. Austens works were written in a completely disparate timeframe where social attitudes towards women, ma... ...rtfordshire with the design of selecting a wife, as I certainly did. Austen illustrates the trivial yet proud nature of this man by his choice of language- his loquacious, garrulous style ultimately makes t he reader lose any respect they may have had for him in previous chapters, and his words do not serve to make him a believable, genuine character- the repeated use of personal pronouns such as I and my also futher this conclusion. Although these methods are contrasting, both are effectual, and indeed this can be said about both authors, whose different techniques and approaches to their work are each effective and certainly contributing influences on todays literature. Works CitedFitzgerald, F. Scott. This Side of Paradise. New York Simon and Schuster, 1975.Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York Macmillan, 1992.

Goethes Faust - A Tragedy :: Faust Essays

Faust A calamity Websters Dictionary says that a tragedy is a lamentable, dreadful, or fatal event or affair, or a disaster. This word and the study Faust, by Goethe, go together very well due to the number of calamities within the tale. For this reason the subtitle "A Tragedy" is appropriate. It is befitting because of Fausts conglutination with the dumbfound, his actions along with the take to task and the fate of two of the main characters at the remove of the story. Faust A Tragedy is very deserving of the subtitle "A Tragedy". It was definitely a tragedy that Faust allied himself with Mephisto. Whenever a person strays from the positively charged path of the Lord to the side of the Devil it is definitely something very negative. For ages mountain have been using the phrase, "he sold his soul to the Devil", with no positive connotation. Of course when this phrase was used it was just to say that that person was evil, not that they actual ly let Satan purchase their soul. That would be ridiculous, pass up? Well that is exactly what happened in Fausts case. Due to his own flaw of not universe satisfied with life itself, he strayed from the Lord and traded his soul for a higher form of entertainment. "Thinkings done with, for ever so long instruction and knowledge have sickened me....Bring on your miracles..." It is tragic when someone feels that they understand so much, or try to ignore so much to the point where they regard that they should give their soul away with no fear of eternal damnation. Faust believes or tries to believe that there is no after life and that he potful just trade away his life to the most evil be in existence with no repercussions. Falling from God and making the Devil his partner is something that deserves the title "a tragedy". While working with the Devil Faust did a number of evil things, some being quite tragic. It was already bad enough that Faust decided to play games with Mephistopheles, but it was worse when he decided he wanted to draw someone else into his sick deal. Faust, being overwhelmed with lust, felt that he needed to seduce and corrupt a youngish girl. "Get me that, do you hear, you must" This is even worse when you consider that it was requisite that he would succeed with the aid of Satan.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Theories in the Human Sciences and Natural Sciences Essay -- Scientifi

What it is intimately the theories of adult male sciences and natural sciences that make them so convincing? When focusing on the gentleman sciences and natural sciences, one might wonder why we believe what we believe. In general, human science can be defined as a social science, or anything that deals with human behavior in its social and cultural aspects (Bastian 190). Natural science is more often thought of as incessant science. It is an organized undertaking that focuses on gathering acquaintance about the creation and condensing that acquaintance into scientific laws and theories that can be tested (Bastian 153). Theories in these two types of sciences are often convincing because of the observation that takes place, the empirical evidence, and the power to put the theories and laws to the test. This knowledge by description, which is defined as public knowledge that is expressed as facts, as well as knowledge by acquaintance, knowledge from familiarity or expe rience, can also be contributing factors in why we believe what we believe (Bastian 18). However, there are some knowledge issues, as well as counterclaims that may interfere with someones belief and perspective on a certain topic. Also, some of our slipway of knowing can play a role in contrastive interpretations of theories in these sciences. These aspects can help answer the topic question of what it is about the theories of human sciences and natural sciences that make them so convincing.In science, a supposition is a tested and testable idea which is used to provide an explanation for an fact (scientific Laws and Theories). Very similarly, a law can be defined as a set of observations that are expressed in an abridged rehearsal (Scientific). An example of a law in nat... ..., whether that is through their own observations and interpretations or through empirical evidence that can be convincingly indorse up by scientific data.Works CitedBastian, Sue. Theory of Knowledge. IB Diploma ed. Pearson education Limited, 2008. Print. Pearson Baccalaureate.Convince Me How Strong Is the Evidence? Understanding Science. Web. 15 Jan. 2012. .Newtons Law of planetary Gravitation. The Physics Classroom. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. .Schultheis, Erin. Harry F. Harlow. Psychology History. May 1999. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. .Scientific Laws and Theories. College of Science and Mathematics. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. .

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

At war with my body :: Essays Papers

At war with my remainsThe mind of a woman athlete is constantly fluttering with thoughts close to what it is to be a woman athlete, how a women athlete should act, what she should wear and how she should look. perchance not everyones mind is consumed by these thoughts, but at ab bug out point every woman struggles with the negative stereotypes about women. There I was againout on the track, softball field, basketball court, ski hill, volleyball game court demonstrateing to prove myself. Prove that I was not barely another little girl who played sports. I was good, strong, uniquea graceful blonde girl who didnt throw worry a girl or ski analogous a pussy. I transgressed gender stereotypes, rejecting girls who mate into those negative stereotypes. Dont ask me what I am eating again, should I eat now, does my butt look likewise bigthighs too beefyhow can I be a ski racing car and maintain my smaller frame? No time to lend out during ski season, am I getting fat? Ma ybe I shouldnt eat as much. I need to go work out, let off some steamget stronger, faster, harder, and more agile. I can lose 20 lbs. I will still be healthy, expert? But I dont want to be too skinny, because if youre too skinny, guys wont like you, right? Do my legs look too big in my G.S. suit? In the weight roomI am the only girl (as she is)I like being one of the guys, but struggle when they talk to me like I am a guy. While benching 300 lbs, I consider them gruntveins popping, sweat dripping, muscles ripped, listening to ACDC. I am running. Keep expirationtheyre watching. I go faster, harder. I run for 1 min to prove myself. I max out on 210 lbs., squattingI am strong. I want to impress them. For years and years, I try my hardest to throw like a man, run like a man, ski like a man, hit like a man, lift like a man. But, I am not a man. Leslie Heywoods jolly Good for a Girl highlights the war we, as women athletes, have with our avouch bodies. It stresses the fact that, While the superstructure of womens sports has improved in countless slipwaybetter media coverage, more corporate endorsement of top athletes, and the breakdown of doddering stereotypesthe infrastructure of womens sports remains precarious (Heywood, xviii).

religious studies :: essays research papers

AO1-What is meant by the term, rite of passage? Choose one Christian denomination. Describe the main rites of passage in that denomination.I am breathing out to describe the Roman Catholic churches main rites of passage. There are quaternion strategic rites, they are baptism, confirmation, marriage and funerals. A rite is a ghostlike ceremony. If the rite marks a certain stage of someones life it is called a rite of passage. Christians believe graven image gives them powers to do his will, this is called perfections grace.The first rite I will describe is baptism. When a person is baptised it is believed that it is their welcome into the Christian church. Holy water is any put onto the persons forehead or they are totally covered in water. This is a rite of passage because it is believed to be a very special as god is accepting them into the church. Infant baptisms in the Roman Catholic church take place during mass so the whole congregation of the church can welcome the sh aver into the Christian belief. The priest takes the service. Three promises must be do but as the child is too young to say them parents or godparents say them on the childs behalf. The promises areTo turn to ChristTo repent viceTo renounce evilThey also agree to raise the child in a Christian house and faith and say that they believe in the Trinity. The stigma of a cross is made on the childs forehead by the priest while he says I sign you with the cross, the sign of Christ. Do not be ashamed to confess the faith of Christ crucified. As the priest says the childs name and I baptise you in the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, he pours water onto the childs forehead. A lighted candle is unremarkably given to the parents as a sign and reminder that the child is straight off in the light of god, and not the darkness of sin. After this ceremony the child is part of the Christian family. The child is anointed with oil called chrism, it is to show the chil d has important work to do in gods service. Also a white garment is worn to show the light of Christ. The water is a sign of purifying the child.The second of the rites is confirmation. It is when someone confirms their belief in god and Christ and when someone who has been baptised is old enough to make the promises made for them at their baptism themselves.

Monday, March 25, 2019

Improving the Effectiveness of Sex Education in Schools Essays -- Sexu

The question is no longer should wake education be taught, further rather how should it be taught. Over 93% of all public postgraduate schools currently offer courses on sexuality or human immunodeficiency virus. More than 510 minor(postnominal) and senior high schools piddle school-linked health clinics, and more than 300 schools exercise condoms available on campus. The question now is, are these programs effective, and if not, how can we reap them better?Kids need the right information to help protect them-selves. The US has more than double the teen shape uprs pregnancy rate of any western industrialise landed estate. Teenagers have the highest rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of any age group, with mavin in four unripened people contracting an STD by the age of 21. STDs, including HIV, can damage teenagers health and reproductive ability. And there is still no cure for AIDS. HIV infection is increasing most rapidly among young people. One in four raw(a) infections in the US occurs in people younger than 22. In 1994, 417 new AIDS cases were diagnosed among 13-19 year olds, and 2,684 new cases among 20-24 year olds. Since infection may occurs up to 10 years onward and AIDS diagnosis, most of those people were infected with HIV either as adolescents or pre-adolescents.Knowledge alone is not enough to change behaviors. Programs that commit mainly on conveying information about sex or moral precepts-how the bodys sexual system functions, what teens should and shouldnt do-have failed. However, programs that focuses on helping teenagers to change their behavior-using role-playing, games, and exercises that tone social skills-have shown signs of success.In the US, controversy over what message should be give to children has disadvantaged sex education programs in s... ...nd practice in communication, negotiation, and refusal skills. Although sex education programs in schools have been around for many years, most programs hav e not been nearly as effective as hoped. Schools across the country need to take a rigorous look at their programs, and lead off to implement more innovative programs that have been proven effective. Educators, parents, and policy-makers should avoid unrestrained misconceptions about sex education based on the rates of thrown-away(prenominal) pregnancies and STDs including HIV among teenagers, we can no longer ignore the need for both education on how to postpone sexual involvement, and how to protect one ego when sexually active. A comprehensive risk prevention strategy uses ternary elements to protect as many of those at risk of pregnancy and STD/HIV infection as possible. Our children deserve the best education they can get.

Media Comparison Research :: Compare Contrast Research Papers

Media Comparison Research There have been spacious debate on research of media comparison as it relates to education oer the past few years. According to Richard Clark, there has been a paradigm raise that occurred in instructional media research during the past decade from a behavioral to a more cognitive approach. (Anglin 348). Clark felt that there was consistent test found that there are no knowledge benefits to be gained from employing all specific median(a) to deliver instruction. Research showing performance on time saving gains from one or another medium is shown to be vulnerable to compelling rival hypothesis concerning the uncontrolled effects of instructional method and novelty. (Clark 445)Media Defined Media refers to a class of instructional resources and representing all aspects of the mediation of instruction through the agency of reproducible events. It includes the materials themselves, the instruments used to deliver the materials to learners and t he techniques or methods employed. (Allen 1) Media can be defined by its technology, symbol systems and processing capabilities. The nearly obvious characteristics of a medium are its technology the mechanical and electronic aspects that determine its function and, to some extent, its shape and other physical features. (Kozma 180) rudiments of Media Research There are three major objectives of media research (1) book knowledge about the educational or instructional effectiveness of a chosen medium (2) increase understanding of how media and technology function and what mental effects they have on a learner (3) improve the workout of education through the provision and evaluation of better materials, media, procedures and technologies (Salomon, Clark 1-2). Schramm, as cited by Salomon, stated that while all media can teach very effectively, learning seem to be affected more by what is delivered than by the voice communication system. (Schramm, 1977) (Salomon 1). This ha s become the basis of disagreement among experts.Discussion Clarks article argued that well-nigh current summaries and meta-analyses of media comparison studies clearly suggest that media do not wreak learning under any conditions. In El Salvador (Schramm, 1977), it was not the medium that caused a change in achievement, but rather a curricular reform that accompanied the change. The best current evidence is that media are uncorrupted vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence school-age child achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in our nutrition.

Herbal Phen-fen :: Pills Phen-fen Health Weight Loss Essays

Herbal Phen- fenlandLose All the Weight You Want, construe Sexy and Feel Great, Use the Safer Alternative, claim advertisements promoting the recitation of a recently-created dietary supplement known as herbal phen fen (CompuGraph International ) Created after the original phen fen (phentermine fenfluramine) drug was recalled from the market as a result of serious military position effects, including severe heart problems which prove fatal for some consumers, the new herbal phen fen was praised by creators for be all natural and lacking whatever slanderous side effects. 1 who relies strictly on internet advertisements for information concerning herbal phen fen, however, may be seriously misinformed and misled about the true nature of this herbal cure-all for system of leans problems. Articles from various journals and periodicals reveal a darker side of herbal phen fen, illustrating the possible harmful side effects of the pill and explaining the dangers of individual ingre dients composing herbal phen fen. Claims of legion(predicate) advertisements for herbal phen fen drectly contradict medical research and scientific studies, lift questions about the in force(p)ness and safety of the new pill. Popular culture teaches pile to search for immediate gratification and quick fix-all methods for every problem, thus fast-working pills call forth to those who dont want to spend months trying to lose weight by drill and eating healthfully. Advertisers capitalize on this quality of public consumers by benevolent to public demands for fast results. Phen-Nominal Results Fast states one ad on the internet, suitably titled Herbal Phen Fast, which boasts the pills ability to suppress the formation of fats. The ad, which was produced by the company HealthMatrix, Inc., portrays herbal phen fen as a quick, safe, easy and effective way to control hunger, reduce cravings and ultimately lose weight, yet avoids explaining the side effects of the pill by dismissing symptoms as few and well-tolerated. The ad name calling and defines the two primary ingredients of herbal phen fen, St. Johns Wort and Mahuang, explaining that the combination of these ingredients leads to weight loss. The ad is intentional to appear scientific with the claim that the main ingredient of herbal phen fen, St. Johns Wort, prolongs the reuptake of serotonin in the brain, leading to feelings of personal satisfaction (HealthMatrix, Inc.) The ad provides no evidence, research or case studies for this claim or any other claims. Three quotations by consumers of the pill are included in the ad, but interestingly enough, though the consumers claim feeling more tireless and satisfied by smaller portions, none of the quotations actually mention weight loss.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

The State of Nature and its Implications for Civilization in Hobbes and

The State of Nature and its Implications for finish in Hobbes and RousseauIn his Leviathan Thomas Hobbes expresses a philosophy of civilization which is some(prenominal) practical and just and stems from a clear moral imperative. He begins with the assurance that in the kingdom of nature small-arm is condemned to live a animateness solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short. It is in the interest of every reality to swot above this put in of nature and to give up veritable rights so that the violent nature of the human beings animal can be subdued. Jean-Jacques Rousseaus vision of the introduce of nature parallels that of Hobbes but for its more optimistic tone I fall upon that hands reach a point where the obstacles to their preservation in a state of nature prove greater than the strength that each man has to preserve himself in that state. In general, Rousseaus words prove clean less severe than Hobbess.According to Hobbes the bestial rights that a man is obligate to give up must also be given up by every other man if civilization is to quell the state of nature. This surrendering of rights then forms covenant of peace which mankind has agreed upon collectively to rise above the state of nature. Hobbes argues that it is human reason that has necessarily led men to embrace this covenant And Reason suggesteth convenient Articles of Peace, upon which men may be drawn to agreement . . . . These Articles of Peace Hobbes calls Laws of Nature and argues that tour they do non exist in a state of nature they be heretofore natural practice of laws which potentially exist there. A Law of Nature (Lex Naturalis,) is a Precept, or generall Rule, found out by Reason, by which a man is forbidden to do, that, which is destructive of his life, or taketh away the means of preserving the same and to omit, that, by which he thinketh it may be best preserved. That is, a natural law is a result of a reasoning which commands that each man entertain his own li fe.With the state of nature as terrible as Hobbes describes it, it is valid for a man to wish to put an end to it, as he then has a greater chance of protecting his own life. Without certain agreements between individuals they interact in a manner in which they are all a constant threat to one another. Therefore Hobbes arrives at the first fundamental law of nature That every man, ought to endeavour Peace, as farthestre as he has hope of obtain... ...iety, both agree that their contemporary domain is not a earthly concern of the human animal. Changes sustain occurred not lone(prenominal) in the way valet are ordered, but in humans themselves as well. Their theories differ in their beliefs about these changes. Hobbes is able to recognize the trustworthy state of man as having transcended its most basic nature. Rousseau agrees with Hobbes but assumes redden more of man. He believes that it is possible not only for humans to be at peace but also to be free. Just how far orde ring has transcended the state of nature in straight offs world is debatable, but one gets the feeling in reading these two authors that Hobbes underestimates human nature and Rousseau overestimates it. Perhaps the truth lies somewhere in the middle, for many societies today are barely able to achieve peace within their borders, while a handful can truly be said to have a liberated populace. It is certainly no coincidence, however, that Rousseaus vision of society heralds liberty as its highest ideal and that the most progressive states of today do likewise. Mankinds ever evolving flight from the state of nature moves raft to continually expect more from their society as well as themselves.

Earthquakes :: essays research papers

Earthquakes Earthquakes occur almost e actuallyday either everyplace the world. Most of the time quakes are not strong enough to be felt by people, but the shaking subjectd by an earthquake sess be recorded by a seismometer. These machines are located all over the world to ensure detection of earthquakes of all strengths. Only once in a while will a larger magnitude earthquake strike and cause damage to the region. There are many faults around the world and depending on where these faults are plays a major factor in determining where an earthquake will occur. It is these faults that are the reason for earthquakes. The information seismologists know about recent earthquakes and earthquakes in general give them a limited ability to in the main predict when and where earthquakes are going to occur. An earthquake is the shaking of Earths surface caused by rapid movement of the earths uptight outer layer. Earthquakes occur when tension stored in rocks suddenly releases (Vogt 12) . sacks occur at these places where rocks on either side of the crack have moved. Oceans are very prevalent places for major tectonic plates to shift. When 2 plates separate, new oceanic rancour is made near the fault as magma rises and eventually sets on the sea floor. If the plates on either side of the fault continue to spread consequently the ocean slowly becomes larger in width. This is called seafloor spreading. Mid-ocean ridges are characterized by a crack like vale at the fault. This crack like valley is caused by the tension pulling the plates apart, cause normal faulting to occur a number of times in the divergent boundary. Shevchik 2The most common vitrine of fault is a normal or dip-slip fault. These occur when two blocks of earth are thrust toward each other, causing one to take up over the other (Britt 1). The intermission wall moves downward congress to the footwall (Tarbuck 244). A reverse fault is the opposite of a normal fault. The hanging wall moves upw ard relative to the footwall (Tarbuck 244). A very powerful persona of fault is the strike-slip fault that occurs when two plates slide past one another. The San Andreas Fault in California is a very good example of this typesetters case of fault. A great deal of damage is done when any type of fault shakes the soil under structures in a low-lying, waterlogged areas, causing liquefaction. Liquefaction occurs when an earthquake shakes the wet, sandy soil near a body of water.

Saturday, March 23, 2019

Othello: True Love and Self-love Essay -- Othello essays

Othello True Love and Self- venerate The William Shakespeare sad play Othello manifests the justness of cut in all its variegated types done the assorted secure and bad characters interacting with each other. H. S. Wilson in his book of literary criticism, On the heading of Shakespearean Tragedy, discusses the love of the Moor for his beloved pull down at the quantify of her murder And when he comes to execute justice upon Desdemona, as he thinks, he has subdued his passion so that he is a compound of explosiveness tenderness. short convinced of Desdemonas guilt and of the necessity of cleanup spot her (Yet she essential die, else shell betray more men), he so far loves her This sorrows heavenly It strikes where it doth love.(55) In the volume Shakespeare and Tragedy tin Bayley explains that there is some(prenominal) love and self-love in the play (201). initially the play presents a very distorted type of love. Act 1 Scene 1 shows Roderigo, generous in his gifts to the ancient, questioning Iagos love for the former, whose concern has been the causa of Desdemona. Roderigo construes Iagos love for him as based on the ancients hatred for the Moor. Thus the blind drunk suitor says accusingly, grand piano toldst me thou didst wet-nurse him in thy hate. In order to prove his love for Roderigo, Iago asserts in distributor point the reasons for his hatred of Othello, who has given the lieutenancy to Michael Cassio, a Florentine. Secondly, Iago shows his love for his wealthy friend by rousing from sleep Brabantio, the father of Desdemona. Once the senator has been awakened, Iago makes a series of loud, crude, off-colour allegations against both the general and Desdemona. David Bevington in William Shakespeare Four Tr... ...His Carpet. N.p. n.p., 1970. Gardner, Helen. Othello A Tragedy of strike and Fortune. Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from The Noble Moor. British honorary soci ety Lectures, no. 9, 1955. Mack, Maynard. Everybodys Shakespeare Reflections Chiefly on the Tragedies. Lincoln, NB University of Nebraska Press, 1993. Pitt, Angela. Women in Shakespeares Tragedies. Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Shakespeares Women. N.p. n.p., 1981. Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. http// No line nos. Wilson, H. S. On the Design of Shakespearean Tragedy. Canada University of Toronto Press, 1957. Othello True Love and narcism Essay -- Othello essaysOthello True Love and Self-love The William Shakespeare tragic play Othello manifests the virtue of love in all its variegated types through the assorted good and bad characters interacting with each other. H. S. Wilson in his book of literary criticism, On the Design of Shakespearean Tragedy, discusses the love of the Moor f or his beloved even at the time of her murder And when he comes to execute justice upon Desdemona, as he thinks, he has subdued his passion so that he is a compound of explosiveness tenderness. Utterly convinced of Desdemonas guilt and of the necessity of killing her (Yet she must die, else shell betray more men), he yet loves her This sorrows heavenly It strikes where it doth love.(55) In the volume Shakespeare and Tragedy John Bayley explains that there is both love and self-love in the play (201). Initially the play presents a very distorted type of love. Act 1 Scene 1 shows Roderigo, generous in his gifts to the ancient, questioning Iagos love for the former, whose concern has been the wooing of Desdemona. Roderigo construes Iagos love for him as based on the ancients hatred for the Moor. Thus the wealthy suitor says accusingly, Thou toldst me thou didst hold him in thy hate. In order to prove his love for Roderigo, Iago asserts in detail the reasons for his hatred of Othello , who has given the lieutenancy to Michael Cassio, a Florentine. Secondly, Iago shows his love for his wealthy friend by rousing from sleep Brabantio, the father of Desdemona. Once the senator has been awakened, Iago makes a series of loud, crude, bawdy allegations against both the general and Desdemona. David Bevington in William Shakespeare Four Tr... ...His Carpet. N.p. n.p., 1970. Gardner, Helen. Othello A Tragedy of Beauty and Fortune. Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from The Noble Moor. British Academy Lectures, no. 9, 1955. Mack, Maynard. Everybodys Shakespeare Reflections Chiefly on the Tragedies. Lincoln, NB University of Nebraska Press, 1993. Pitt, Angela. Women in Shakespeares Tragedies. Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Shakespeares Women. N.p. n.p., 1981. Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. http // No line nos. Wilson, H. S. On the Design of Shakespearean Tragedy. Canada University of Toronto Press, 1957.