Friday, May 31, 2019

Baroque Art in Europe and North America Essays -- essays research pape

Baroque Art in Europe and North AmericaThroughout this research paper the topic is going to be along the lines of the Baroque Art in Europe and North America, which comes from chapter nineteen of our Art History book. The main purpose is to review major ideas and principles in this chapter by report an analysis of certain points that were highlighted. For example, certain techniques that were used to define the Baroque Art, major sculptures, architectures, and paintings, and in any case just some general background information about this while period. I decided to write on this subject because when reading the chapters, the Baroque period seemed to catch my attention the most due to the amazing architecture that was construct during this time. The Baroque period is understood to be around the time frame of the 1600 to about 1750s and was greatly supported by the Catholic Church and also by the Popes during this time. According to the History and Appreciation of Art, The term Bar oque is from the Portuguese barroco, which means a misshapen pearl and the Baroque was the final phase of the reincarnation or an era distinct from both the Renaissance and the modern era(History and Appreciation of Art). Baroque is a word that is considered to be a style that emerged in Europe in the late sixteenth century and that last approximately into the eighteenth century. Baroque, as a formal style, is characterized by open compositions in which elements argon placed or seem to move diagonally in space (Stokstad pg. 721). Baroque art and for that matter seventeenth century art was known to be more of inbredistic form and used truly strong movements of lighting in their paintings, sculptures, and architectures. For instance, ... Baroque is dynamic with tension between naturalism and classicism. Baroque has very dramatic lighting with strong artificial light and dark. Strong movement exists in the paintings and architecture, both real and unreal (History and Appreciation of Art). According to our book in regards to the Baroque period taking a naturalistic form, The desire for realism was inspired in part by the growing interest in the natural sciences Biological sciences added to the artists knowledge of human and animal anatomy and botany physics and astronomy changed their concept of space and light (Stokstad pg.722). &nbs... .... And also the sculptures during Baroque period in Italy and France were tied into the building of the architectures. In conclusion, the Baroque art in Europe and North America was a time of growth for many of the countries in these areas. We accommodate seen many developments such as the great architecture, sculptures, and paintings that were produced by many artists. Also, one of the more informative issues that were not known by me and probably many others were the cunning was to produce paintings. During this research and analysis of this chapter of the Baroque arts, I certainly have found more insight on the arts of t he sixteenth century in Europe and North America. Works CitedAndersen, Liselotte. Baroque and Rococo Art. New York Harry N. Abrams, INC, 1969.Bazin, Germain. Baroque and Rococo Art. New York Frederick A. Praeger, INC, 1964.History and Appreciation of Art. (Online)Available http// .htmtop, butt on 27, 2005.Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. New JerseyPearson Education, INC, 2005.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

The Particular Features Of The Employment System In Japan :: essays research papers

The Particular Features Of The Employment System In JapanOne of the unique and well known features of the Japanese employmentsystem is permanent wave employment for workers. Japanese corporations responses torecessionary periods provide an opportunity to sort bring out the myths from therealities of the Japanese permanent employment system.During recessions Japanese companies forced to reduce their costs happen upon reductions in several ways. First, they reduce the number of women andtemporary workers they employ. During the recession that followed the 1973 oilshocks female employment dropped by eleven percent more then 5 times thedrop in male employment. It was easy to reduce female employment because womeneven if they hold permanent positions are thought of as brief workers whowill leave the workforce when they get married. Female and temporary workers area safety valve for Japanese companies that allow them to reduce costs in the short without firing permanent male workers. T he second way Japanesecompanies reduce costs is by giving early retirement to senior workers at thecompany. numerous of these workers forced into early retirement then take up farmingas is the custom in Japan for retires. Getting rid of senior workers is virtuoso themost effective tools companies have of reducing costs because these workers havemore seniority and thus make more money then the average worker. Japanesecompanies also are able to cut costs during recessions by reducing oreliminating bonuses paid to workers, cutting down on hiring of new workers,eliminating the farming out of work to subcontractors, transferring workersinternally with in the company to subsidiaries, and reducing profit margins tolevels that many American companies would find intolerable.Japanese companies response to recessions shows the benefits anddisadvantages of their employment system. Some of the benefits are that allegianceand labor relations are very good. This is due to the fact that for non-te mporary male workers not yet near retirement age companies make a great effortto continue the permanent employment system even during recessions. Most youngmale workers once entering a company baffle with it for their entire life and forthem Japans permanent employment system serves them well. These workers come toview their company as almost a benevolent parent the company leads them by dint offitness drills, training camps, and retreats. A workers identity is shaped notby their individual title but by the company they belong to.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

The Setting in Emily Brontes Wuthering Heights :: Wuthering Heights Essays

The Importance of the Setting in Wuthering Heights   The setting of a gothic novel has been describe as, "usually a large mansion or remote castle which is dark and foreboding usually isolated from neighbors" In Wuthering Heights, Bronte has used Thrushcross Grange and Wuthering Heights to depict isolation and separation. The dark and foreboding environment exposit at the beginning of the novel foreshadows the gloomy atmosphere found in the remainder of the book. Wuthering Heights is an ancient mansion perched on a high ridge, overlooking a bled, windy. sparsely inhabited wasteland. The harsh, gloomy characteristics of the land be reflected in the human characters. In Frankenstein, Victors country house near geneva is described as isolated, dwarfed by massive, snow capped mountain ranged and hunted by the emptiness of a calm lake. Victor also describes it as "an anomalous tranquillity"(page 27) This effect of isolation and tranquillity leads directly i nto the dreary element of mood. Victors apartment at the university also conveys a feeling of dread with its piles of books, at sea equipment, dust and unkemptness. Shelleys novel takes us on a tour of the wildest, most isolated geography in Europe the Swiss and French Alps, the Rhine valley, the outermost Hebrides of Scotland, Northern Ireland, Russia and the Arctic. In these places, where humans are dwarfed by uncontrollable nature, the protagonist is helpless and alone. The element of mood in a gothic novel has been described as, "gloomy, dark, terror, death, revenge, hate, mystery, horror." In Wuthering Heights, the two most convincing elements of mood are death and revenge. Every character in the Linton and Earnshaw family tree dies at a young age, with the ejection of Harton Earnshaw and Catherine Linton. With his driving hate for the Lintons and Earnshaws, Heathcliff executes his revenge on both families from the first to second generation. In Frankenstein, there is a direct relationship between death and revenge. Since the fauna Victor had created had been denied love by Victor and society it set out to destroy those whom Victor loves. As the monster avenges itself on its creator it destroys Victors closes companions and relations. In both novels, the isolated setting play a major sole in creating mood. The raw, uncontrolled geography dominated the human characters, whose emotion are almost directed by their surroundings. Setting and mood are closely intertwined, and throughout the novels on senses that the humans are helpless in the face of nature and their own uncontrolled emotions and are impelled toward downfall determined by something other that themselves.

Civil War Essay -- American History Civil War

Abraham Lincoln once stated, A House divided against itself cannot stand. I Believe this organization cannot endure, permanently half(a) slave and half free. I do not expect the house to fall. But I do expect it go away cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other. More than anything else, differing interpretations about the Civil War drove the debate over the meaning of the report and of the Union.These were, of course, not new issues. Indeed, as Professor Joseph Ellis has noted in Founding Brothers the Revolutionary Generation both had been on the minds of the delegates to Philadelphia in 1787. And, significantly, they were considered so controversial that neither the word slavery nor the word nation appeared in the Constitution. In the late 1800s the southmostern states began to slowly secede from the Union on grounds that the federal government was limiting their rights, such as the right to own and regulate slaves, which were at that time considered t o be property (Monk 208). Slavery was the Souths main reason for secession, among other things. The South also, at that time, chose to remain an agricultural region therefore, it had strong reasons for seeing that slavery, as an institution, continued without limits or interference. At the same time that all of this angst was going on, the autocratic Court was being appointed a case that would add even more fuel to the already raging fire. The Dred Scott Decision of 1856 gave yet another arguing to this long debate about the issue of slavery between the North and the South. The case itself would not have reached the Supreme Court in the first attitude had it not been for the fact that slavery and its extension into new territories had become such a continu... ...from the beginning. In contemplation of universal law and of the Constitution, the Union of these states is perpetual, or pure(a) (Lincolns Inaugural Address). Abraham Lincoln stated in his Inaugural Address of 1860 tha t, Perpetuity is implied, if not expressed, in the fundamental law of all national governments. It is safe to conjecture that no proper government ever had a provision in its organic law for its own termination (Lincolns Inaugural Address). I agree with Lincolns hypothesis because if the framers created the Constitution with provisions for its own termination, then they would have implied that there would need to be necessary cause for such an action. No Union would create a constitution implying temporary unity (Ward 34). Lincolns words and theory of a perpetual union explains the fundamental statement no state has the right to secede from the Union.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

The Church On Homelessness :: essays research papers

The Church on HomelessnessThe view of the church to the homeless is generous and envangelisticcommitment. The church also shows a special spang for the sorry. The churchjust being there and its charitable help for the homeless shows what Godwould want the church to do for the homeless.The church is very conscious that the insufficiency of decent housing threatensthe poor. The church is grateful for the creation of organizations that help tomake the right to housing possible for many homeless people.Examples of such organizations are shelters and notice of the localchurches. Pope Paul VI himself personally promoted a program aimed atproviding housing for some families who were living in a Roman slum. The anguish of the church for housing for the homeless comes fromthree ideas1) Adequate housing is important if a person is to find fulfillment, bothas an individual and as a member of a family and society. 2) The witness that the church seeks to give in helping in the search fora s olution to the problems of the poor is a sign of the front of the kingdomof salvation and liberation. 3) The mission of the church also consists in helping to make societymore human.The Catholic Church agrees with these three ideas and also makes its cause judgement on the suffering of these millions of people. From the time ofthe earliest Christian communities, the church has always shown a preferencefor the poor, the needy, and on the outcasts of society. The way that thechurch insists on reaching out to the poor through mission collections, foodpantries, and shelters shows the preferential love that the church has for thesepeople. The church has always appealed to government programs set up tohelp the poor and has always supported cities to set up housing programs inthe poorest areasAs long as there are people without housing, Christians who have

The Church On Homelessness :: essays research papers

The Church on HomelessnessThe view of the church to the homeless is too-generous and envangelisticcommitment. The church also shows a special love for the poor. The churchjust being thither and its charitable help for the homeless shows what Godwould want the church to do for the homeless.The church is very conscious that the lack of decent housing threatensthe poor. The church is grateful for the creation of organizations that help tomake the right to housing feasible for many homeless people.Examples of such organizations are shelters and witness of the localchurches. Pope Paul VI himself personally promoted a program aimed atproviding housing for whatsoever families who were living in a Roman slum. The concern of the church for housing for the homeless comes fromthree ideas1) Adequate housing is important if a person is to regulate fulfillment, bothas an individual and as a member of a family and society. 2) The witness that the church seeks to give in helping in the search fora solution to the problems of the poor is a sign of the presence of the kingdomof salvation and liberation. 3) The mission of the church also consists in helping to make societyto a greater extent human.The Catholic Church agrees with these three ideas and also makes itsown judgement on the suffering of these millions of people. From the time ofthe earliest Christian communities, the church has ever shown a predilectionfor the poor, the needy, and on the outcasts of society. The way that thechurch insists on reaching out to the poor through mission collections, foodpantries, and shelters shows the preferential love that the church has for thesepeople. The church has always appealed to government programs set up tohelp the poor and has always supported cities to set up housing programs inthe poorest areasAs long as there are people without housing, Christians who have

Monday, May 27, 2019

Research on Legalizing Marijuana Essay

Legalizing hemp has been a controversial and extremely volatile topic ever since the 1970s. Many heap hold strong beliefs regarding this topic and the concomitant laws that guard been passed in certain states for the use of the recreational drug. However, marihuana is non just a recreational drug, plainly has many different wonderful medical examination purposes for the American people. Marijuana should be decriminalised for recreational and medical purposes throughout this country. This drug should be legalized throughout this country because unlike many of the legal substances that the United States provides, no one has died or been hospitalized for the use of marihuana. Additionally, marijuana would be an amazing increase that the government can have their hands on, and provide it to the people all go valuateing and regulating its product.This would have multiple benefits throughout every major city, depleting the use of illegal drug cartel and being able to extract mi llions, perhaps even trillions amount of dollars in tax revenue. Finally, one of my concluding reasons as to why marijuana should be legalized is because marijuana, unlike all the legal substances, is not a gateway drug and according to many studies A small minority of Americans- less than 1 percent- smoke marijuana on a daily hind end (CQ researcher 531). Those who be opposing this highly beneficial and amazing drug that could help potentially save lives, hide behind their numerous walls of misconception.A renowned quote once said by Bob Marley ordains herb is the healing of a nation, alcohol is the destruction. This quote, I believe, was said to the nation of the United States indirectly. The damages that alcohol can do to ones body is much worse than of that of marijuana, and yet it is still legal. Whereas marijuana is illegal in most states and has more(prenominal) medical uses and benefits. The U.S. Centers for Disease pull wires and Prevention (CDC) reports that more t han 37,000 an-nual U.S. deaths, including more than 1,400 in Colorado, are attri thated to alcohol use alone (i.e. this figure does not include accidental deaths). On the other hand, the CDC does not even have a category for deaths caused by the use of marijuana (Saferchoice 1). Just because marijuana has been referred to as a drug many perceive it as being the type of drug where it controls the household, or breaks up the family, ruining the lives of the ones who used it.However I believe that this drug needs to be reevaluated for the good of humanity. If people are truly growing it for personal consumption, its not an issue with us(CQ Researcher 527) said Marc Alcantara and his 22 officer unit focus on commercial marijuana growing. Officers of the San Mateo County Narcotics Task Force has his priorities straight when it comes to marijuana, but he is not talking close your backyard smokers. Marc is talking about the indoor growing operations that have skyrocketed in the last 5 di visions over 265 percent. Indoor growing operations are capable of turning out three crops a year, typically grossing $250,000 per crop.( CQ Researcher 527) With marijuana already a lucrative California crop, Alcantara believes that we should go completely legal in the state of California, and legalize the entire cannabis assiduity and tax the product.Of course, Alcantara is not the only person who gets a say in this, as Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger thinks that it is not a time where we can just legalize something as powerful as this, but its defiantly time to talk about it. Unfortunately right now is a hard time to incline the U.S. Congress that smoking weed is medicine (CQ Researcher 527). The big question as to why marijuana hasnt been legalized yet is out on the table. community have been talking about this proposition for the last five to six years. Evaluating marijuana as a revenue source requires solid estimates of the size of marijuana crops, and the figures vary widely . A nationwide cannabis crop estimate of 10 million metric tons- worth 35.8 billion- was whatwas recorded by the White House drug- form _or_ system of government office in 2003.But some dismiss this fact because individuals believe that the United States would need somewhere between 4 to 10 times more cannabis than it needs to cover domestic consumption.(CQ Researcher 530) Even with a high demand of consumptions the United States government would be able to regulate and tax the marijuana accordingly to help stimulate the economy. If you made it licit, and taxed it, the price would collapse. (CQ Researcher 530) Stating that it would be harder to sell on the streets make the product more of a pharmaceutical drug instead of a street drug. In 2005 cigarette smoking had declined drastically, 378 billion cigarettes sold in the United States was the lowest number since 1951, when the nations population was about half its present size.(CQ Researcher 530) Marijuana was not only more bas e hit than the effects and harm of alcohol but also it is more safe than the effect of tobacco as well.Although marijuana has its perks, it is still a drug and can very well have its down sides. Long term marijuana use can be addictive for some people (CQ Researcher 531). For those people who smoke marijuana 27 out of 30 days, critical skills link up to attention, memory, and learning were significantly impaired, even after they had not used the drug for at least 24 hours. But although these side effects go out happen, they will however not kill you, unlike the effects of alcohol and tobacco. Also with the effects of marijuana in early adolescents, can increase the likelihood of drug problems later in life.Legalizing marijuana would not only help the individuals who could use the powerful effects of it, it could also make room in our jails and make it easier on our police officers out on the streets. No more will an officer have to make a report for someone who was casually smokin g a joint on the park bench. The budget issue is very important, but we should not loose sightof the moral component- 700,000 Americans are being arrested every year for nothing more than a marijuana possession. Those arrested are separated from their loved ones, branded criminals, denied jobs and in many cases prohibited from accessing public assistance for life. (CQ Researcher 533) Marijuana is used in our lives for entertainment purposes, for recreational purposes, and most of all health purposes.A recent Washington Post review of a concert by The Dead (formerly the Grateful Dead) described seeing in the audience a 50-something with a tucked in polo button down shirt, and a blackberry holster at the hip slyly taking a hit of a joint. (CQ Researcher 532) This individual wasnt trying to have anyone, nor was he trying to bother anyone, but because the substance he was smoking was illegal he was targeted. This man in any other setting wouldnt be looked at as a criminal but instead h e is now getting a ticket and a humiliating felony on his recored, that could potentially ruin his life.Marijuana has been a topic of discussion for the last decade. Whether to legalize it, or keep it a street drug. Some say that legalizing it will only make it worse for the environment, making it everywhere around us, and having the whole world high. Others say that legalizing it will help, not only the economy, but the people living in the United States tremendously. Some say that keeping it illegal is better, but then complain about how bad the economy is, while others say that keeping it illegal will only hurt us in the long run. Whichever side your on, make sure you have evidence that supports your reasoning. There are so many different opinions to this matter and I feel that in the sooner years it will should be legal.My thoughtsI felt as if this article not only brought both elements to the table butalso gave me different ways to look at the certain situation. This article wa s both inspiring and reasonable. It showed me that there are certain reasons as to why this product isnt quite legal on the street just yet. This article gave me facts that I had no idea about and I really liked how it didnt side with one specific side. Having both sides of the argument in this topic showed me a new-fangled light towards why not legalize it. There are many reasons as to why you shouldnt legalize it, but not too many for the side of why too legalize it.I build a lot of great and intellectual information in this article that I would love to use in my life, and found a few new ways to think of things towards this situation. I enjoyed reading this article a lot and actually look forward in reading some more in my future.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Men in the play Essay

Cleopatra is always at a significant disadvantage as a cleaning woman in a male-dominated world. What in your opinion are the military groups and weaknesses that the Queen shows as she deals with the men in the play?Unanimously renowned as the harlot faerie Stanley, 2001 and as a lascivious courtesan Stanley, 2001, the mercurial Egyptian Queen is anachronistically portrayed by Shakespeare in a more sympathetic location than his contemporaries who had diluted her character into an object of carnality. Ostentatiously dissimilar from the female visions of constancy and chastity presented by Octavia and Fulvia, the mature and sexual woman is celebrated for her sorrow love which offers the most profound vision of human constancy French, 1982 in the patriarchal former struggle between the three Roman triumvirs.Cleopatra, renowned for her natural beauty is shown to have an alluring effect on the men that surround her, often exploiting her appearance to ensnare powerful men to do her bidding. Te finis to her aesthetic manipulation is revealed in the lavish descriptions of her when she first met Antony, who instantaneously seemed to have fallen victim to her charms. The first encounter of the matriarch and her buffer, as narrated by Enobarbus, displays the acclamation and extravagance of the Queen, the grandeur of which seems to captivate the narrator himself and his Roman colleagues.The burnishd throne on which she sailed displayed her regality, combining visions of gold and purple when juxtaposed with her beauty which horizontal age cannot wither seemed to present her in a god-like manner that rivals the beauty of Venus. Such hyperbolic descriptions seems to justify the immediate infatuation of Antony and the extent to her physical manipulation, think or otherwise is seen when the triumvir who is presented in the likeness of Mars and whose power was like rattling thunder is inevitably turned into that of a doating mallard.It is the fall of the general from a position of infinite power to that of a helpless boy that is repeatedly mourned in the play by Romans but also reveals the seductive artistic creation of Cleopatra whose presence is deemed to be the triumph of the voluptuous Hazlitt, 1817. The transformation into a strumpets fool is clearly visible in the case of Antony who willingly abandons his duties in Rome, the underlying essence of his role and power.The audience is made visible of Antonys ensnarement into the Egyptian fetters which he realises he must break if he wants to ever supply with honour into the presence of the other triumvirs. It is not only her ability to form unbreakable shackles around her victims but also the consequent emasculation of Antony and her former lover Julius Caesar as revealed when she gets them to lay their sword to bed the sword being the dominant weapon of choice and phallic symbol of the powerful mens manliness. Simultaneously anticipate the role of a metaphorical embodiment of Venus, dre ssed in cloth-of-gold but also the personification of her beloved Egypt, she is shown to be an inherently sexual character, unmatched in regality and lustre.Shadowed in political knowledge and militaristic power by the triple pillars of Rome, Cleopatra employs her seductive beauty, enhanced by her ability to wield emotional power to ensure her continued survival. It is often suspected that despite her infinite variety and oscillating moods, her actions always contain a deliberate logic Danby, 1952. Her uncanny strength in mentally manipulating Antony is clearly visible in the opening scenes of the play, at the arrival of the messengers at which she suggests that Antony hear them, despite his rejection of them.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Reaction Paper on SONA 2015 Essay

Hanggat buo ang ating pananalig at tiwala, at hanggat nagsisilbi tayong lakas ng isat isa, patuloy nating mapapatunayan na, the Philippine is worth anxious(p) for, the Filipino is worth living for, at idadagdag ko naman po The Filipino is definitely worth fighting for. This is the highlight of the fifth State of the Nation spoken communication by His Excellency Benigno Simeon Aquino III. The stand of believing in the democracy, believing that people with the government can make a change within his term. Since the death of his parents, the bequest still continues and I guess the legacy is in his heart believing that its not too late for changes in the Philippine government position and in any case the economic and social status of the country. Based on the past State of the Nation apportion of President Aquino, critics said that, this State of the Nation Address is not clearly stating the change that they expected to be. The changes within his term is expected to be clear and m ust lift the Philippines from being the Sick Man of Asia to the uprising Country in Asia.see morereaction paper about sona 2017But for me, I guess for about 5 years of his term, I welcome him and his works in making everything possible is evident through his achievements. For the past five years, the system of education through his leadership is I guess changed and globally leveled the foreign and international standards. An example of this is the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). The Disbursement Acceleration Program contributed 1.6 billion pesos to TESDAs Training for Work learning Program. This amount enabled the graduation of 223,615 beneficiaries. 66 percent of theseor, 146,731 graduatesnow have jobs. This is just one of the amazing changes that he and his leadership has made differences from the past administrations. Also, the poverty in the Philippines, not although changed bigtime but I guess through the littlesteps, we can make change. We must invest in our most valuable resource The Filipino people. Data from the National Economic Development Authority shews to this success.According to them, the 27.9 percent poverty rate during the first semester of 2012 went down to 24.9 percent for the same period in 2013. These three percentage points are equivalent to 2.5 million Filipinos who have crossed the poverty line. There are still many achievements that the President stated and had attest his success, or should I say OUR success. The Filipino people must help and also lift themselves up if they want change in the society, the government and also their own lives. Just like what the President said, Give a man a slant and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime. The change must also come through the ideals of change by the people. I guess, if we want a change, a more evident change, it must come from the people. Helping themselves first, making themselves worthy for the society, and throug h this they can make change, with the partnership of the President and the government. After all, this is a DEMOCRACY, by the people, for the people.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Evaluation of Cardiovascular and related Health Interventions in the Uk

AbstractThis research proposal focuses on the wellnessc atomic number 18 initiatives in the UK pertaining to cardiovascular and related diseases. Using journal articles and g everywherenment reports as junior-grade sources and comprehensive researchnaire establish interviews and direct telephonic surveys as the chief(a) input, the study aims to evaluate the preventive health programs to ascertain their dominance. These results would serve to help in adapting polices befittingly so that the political orientation of preventive care could be translated into a pragmatically feasible approach.IntroductionThe National health Service has transformed phenomenally over the last two decades and the UK government has been at the forefront of health policies driven with a preventive focus. Cardiovascular diseases are still the number one killers in the UK. (BHF, 2010) The rapidly aging national population is set to stick a severe burden in terms of allocation of funds and quality of interposition delivery in the coming years. Let alone the burden of caring for an aged population, the general health level of the working age population is excessively on a decline. Around 2.6 million mint are already on the government incapacity benefits while every year almost 600000 people are claiming these benefits. The costs of health related absence from work in the UK is estimated at a staggering ?100 billion which is equal to the entire annual costs of the NHS. DH, 2008 at that place is a pressing need and a sense of urgency to plan for the management of this growing burden.This study aims to examine some of these health care initiatives and policies aimed at preventing cardiovascular and related diseases and evaluate their effectualness. The government has created lot of independent bodies that check the progress of these health initiatives and assess their health impacts. This study forget include a literature review of both local anesthetic and nationwide pre ventive interferences. Academics and research workers would be consulted to get their perspectives of these programs and their evaluation. The objective of the study is to assess the hard-hittingness of these interventions and the evaluation procedures in order to provide a strategic focus for the future.Literature ReviewWhy the need for a Preventive Focus on health programs?There is an overwhelming burden on the NHS to deliver quality healthcare when there are severe financial constrains. There is an urgent need to shift from ideology to pragmatism. New health perspectives are called for. Prevention is better than cure and the financial benefits of a preventive approach are dearly welcome for the cash confine NHS. One of the significant achievements from a nationwide strategic preventive health program is the National Service poser initiated program for cardiovascular disease measure and treatment in 2002. Within 2 years of the execution of instrument of this nationwide i nitiative a significant decline in cardiovascular mortality judge (40%) among the population aged below 75 years was reported. It is estimated that the Preventive drive from NSF saved around 22,000 lives in 2007. (DH, 2007)Life style disorders and tangible inactivity dedicate contributed to a significant rise in Obesity, diabetes and other health risk factors for cardiac diseases. (Allender, 2007) In a recent health survey of England, acceptable physical activity levels were reported at 39% and 29% for men and women respectively. Accelerometry data however, revealed a very low percentage of men and women (6% and 4%) met the recommended activity levels. (BHF, 2010)There is an urgent focus on increasing physical activity (Walk to Work Program) as an effective method to counter the obesity epidemic and its cardiac complications. The anti have campaigns and the NHS Diabetes programs are aimed at mitigating the risk factors for cardiac diseases. The most recent initiative is t he culture 2020 project, which is aimed at improving the awareness of the public in recognizing the commonalities between cardiovascular diseases and related disorders. This project calls for a cardiovascular coalition (CVC) to put a practically effective and comprehensive preventive approach against heart diseases. (BHF, 2009)Evaluation of Preventive Health ProgramsAs mentioned before evaluation of the effectiveness of health interventions is vital. The growth so far achieved by the NHS has to be sustained and made more effective by adapting them to local communities in order to improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment delivery. There are quite a few government organizations that are entrusted with overseeing the implementation and auditing of the preventive health intervention programs. This study will focus on some of these evaluations. The National Institute for Health and Clinical excellence (NICE) offers evidence based practical guidelines to the implementation and assess ment of such programs. The recently initiated NIHR Public Health look for program is designed to evaluate current programs and offer evidence based approach for future. In particular, the NIHR research program focuses on the practicalities and to address issues such as social inequalities in the implementation of a health initiative. (NHS, 2011) Similarly the NHS Health Scotland evaluates preventive interventions in the country and provides extensive reports pertaining to the programs locally. Furthermore, five independent research bodies namely Fuse, DECIPHer, Northern Ireland Centre of Excellence for Public Health, CEDAR and UK Centre for Tobacco wangle Studies provide research based evidence for implementation and evaluation of public health programs. (NOO, 2011) While some programs have been touted as vastly successful others are found to be lacking in terms of practical results. This study aims to have a closer look into these disparities and arrive at some improvements.Res earch QuestionHow effective are health organizations in designing and implementing preventive health initiatives to wangle sum diseases Is the strategic drive by the UK government health department to control cardiac diseases by preventive programs such as anti smoking campaigns, Physical activity programs, and Obesity and diabetes control programs effective and bearing resultsThere are for sure differences of opinion regarding the answers to these questions. This research seeks to more closely examine the relevant issues and answer these questions. MethodologyResearch StrategyThis research is based on an objective, scientific methodology. This research proposes to use both primary and secondary sources. Articles from databases of published research materials and government publications constitute the secondary sources (Wrenn et. al 2006). These would be obtained by using appropriate keyword based search. The combination of keywords would constitute effective exclusion criteria so that unrelated material could be avoided. For the primary sources of information many government agencies and people responsible for overseeing and evaluating health intervention programs would be contacted over phone and email. The questionnaires for these respondents would be designed based on research findings obtained from the secondary research. In this way it is possible to ascertain if the primary sources of information agree with the conclusions of the old research findings. Rating scales would be used to assess the effectiveness of health interventions and semi structured questionnaires would be employed to gather information directly from the persons who administer these programs. (Babbie 2010) The advantage of using semi structured questions is that it would help extract more information about the success or failure of these programs.Access/Ethical IssuesTelephonic interviews and email based questionnaires are the main access methods in this study. Since the peopl e currently representing an organization would be contacted and their opinions about current and past health interventions programs will be gathered, it would cause an ethical predicament. The opinions of people in charge of these programs might affect or jeopardize their career with the organization if their views about these programs are unintentionally leaked out. A confidentiality obligation would therefore be necessary to encourage people to talk openly and disclose information related to the health projects.Limitations of the ResearchIt takes a lot of time for large-scale projects to take effect and hence evaluating health projects could have to be undertaken over an extended period. Especially, since some of the new cardio vascular health programs such as Destination 2020 have just commenced it would not be possible to assess the effects of these and other such new initiatives in this study.ConclusionThis proposal outlines the research question concerned with the evaluation of health projects aimed at preventing cardiovascular and other related diseases in the UK. The literature review uses reports from government organizations and clearly highlights the immediate need for intervention and a strategic focus for controlling cardiac health problems across the country. The research methodology is useful to evaluate these programs and to analyze their impact. These results would serve to help us in adapting polices suitably so that the ideology of preventive care could be translated into a pragmatically feasible approach.Time Chart ActivityTime Scale Research formula Planning Review of Literature Research Objectives Preparation of Questionnaires Contact Primary sources Survey Analysis of Data Draft of Dissertation Final DissertationReferencesBabbie, E R (2010), The Practice of Social Research (12th Edition.), Cengage Learning, Belmont, CABritish Heart Foundation (2009), Destination 2020 A Plan for Cardiac and Vascular Health, British Heart Foundation, London.British Heart Foundation, (2010) Coronary Heart Disease Statistics Behavioral Risk Factors, University of Oxford.Department of Health (2007a), The Coronary Heart Disease National ServiceFramework Building for the future progress report for 2007.DH, (Nov 2008), Improving Health and Work Changing Lives, Crown Publications. UKNational Obesity Observatory (2011) Evaluation Websites Viewed Jan 16th 2012, NHS (2011) Research to improve the health of the public and reduce inequalities in health, Viewed, Jan 16th 2011, http// Allender, Charlie Foster, Peter Scarborough, Mike Rayner (2007), The Burden of Physical Activity related ill Health in the UK, J Epidemiol Community Health 61344-348Wrenn, B, Stevens, R E and Loudon, L (2006) Marketing research text and cases (2nd Edition), Routledge, UK

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Election a benchmark election

The united States survived this conflict under Abraham capital of Nebraska, the Republican from Illinois. After the war terminateed, Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party were viewed as heroes. They had ended slavery in the United States and won the war. Most importantly they were able to keep a nation, divided up by a monumental disoblige such as slavery seen as creating Irreconcilable differences, together. As a result of the viewed successes of the Republicans during this era, they were able to dominate the white-hot residence, even though Lincoln iniquity President, Andrew Johnson, as a Democrat.Johnson would save serve one term in office aft(prenominal) Lincoln assassination, due to the poor policies he would enact as chairman. The following US Presidents would be Ulysses S. Grant, a Republican war hero, and three more Republicans, Hayes, Garfield and Arthur, to begin with another Democrat would become president. The most successful president of the era was Abraham Lincoln who Is widely considered the greatest president in US history for his accomplishments during the civilian war. On the other hand Andrew Johnson is considered one of the worst, and is one of alone deuce presidents to be imp separatelyed.Lincoln achievements, coupled with the distrust of southern Democrats after the Civil warf ar, paved the way for Republicans to control the White House for the latter half of the nineteenth century. SYSTEM OF 1896 (1897-1933) The System of 1 896, also known as the Progressive Era, was another span of time that was dominated by the Republican Party, for all draw out an eight-year gap where a Democrat held the White House. The trend started under President McKinley as he expanded the Statess borders with the Spanish American War, trade in China, and acquisitions of the Philippines and Hawaii, before he was assassinated.Teddy Roosevelt, who followed McKinley, made m whatever reforms that Improved the food (meat packing factories in particula r), built the Panama Canal, and built up American naval strength, some(prenominal) of which fostered the al-Qaida of American Imperialism set by McKinley. William Howard Taft continued the Progressive Era by reforming the American workplace at the time. Taft instituted the concept of an eight-hour workday as hearty as continuing to break up monopolies and trusts, such as American Standard Oil, more than Teddy Roosevelt had in his time as president . After the end of Tufts first term,Roosevelt felt he hadnt done enough as president and ran a boostst him under the Bull-Moose party. This led to Taft and Roosevelt splitting Republican votes and a find out Democrat, Woodrow Wilson, sweet the option. From 1892 to 1928 the Republicans were winning at or above 50% in all regions besides the south, a region Democrats considered their base at the time, the sole exception being in 1912 when Teddy Roosevelt ran against William Howard Taft under the Bull-Moose Party. This resulted in Taft and Teddy Roosevelt splitting the Republican vote .This demonstrates how strong the Republicans were during the System of 1896 wrought the nation. Wilson would lead the nation through World War I and with it create a prosperous nation. But by the end of his presidency it was his failed ideas that would stick with him and the Democratic Party leading to Republicans controlling the White House for the next twelve years. Willows successes included creating the Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission and Clayton Antitrust Act. In addition he was president when the 19th amendment, womans right to vote, was ratified.However, what hell eer be remembered for was the idea of the League of Nations which would help dead to his partys losses in the next election. The next twelve years of Republican presidents were generally indistinct, remembered primarily for Herbert Hovers softness to deal with the bully Depression, leading to the election of Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt as presid ent. THE NEW DEAL AND THE GREAT SOCIETY (1933-1969) The Great Depression changed the way giving medication operated in the United States. Under ply and the cutting Deal the US Government grew to the largest it has ever been .Figure 1 Instead of the government being there to protect the mint in times of crisis when Americans needed help, the New Deal dramatically changed the scope of government. The government changed from reactionary to precautionary, resulting in a larger, more involved federal official government. FED and the New Deal helped guide the nation out of the Great Depression and through World War II, moreover not without changing the federal government forever. The effects of this change are still seen today with welfare, Social Security, and the Tennessee Valley Authority among other government programs created by the New Deal.After FED came Truman and the Marshall innovation continuing the trend of the United States becoming a global power by offering aid to Eur ope to rebuild from the aftermath of World War II and the threat of Communism. Truman also presided over the creation of the United Nations, establishment of Israel as a country, the Berlin the mold of Fads ideologies. After 20 years of Democratic presidents, moderate Republican and war hero Dwight D. Eisenhower won the presidency. Eke oversaw the building of the interstate highway system, as well as the beginnings of the Space Race, and the Civil Rights Era.These accomplishments were good, but did not star sign a full shift from the important issues odd FED and Traumas presidencies. Following Eisenhower presidency civil rights became a focus of national politics and focal acmes of both KEF and Labs presidencies. Lyndon B. Johnson would represent the end of the Democratic hold on the presidency. Despite his role in the civil rights movement, ending all forms of segregation, and The Great Society, he will be remembered for beginning involvement in the Vietnam War. American involvem ent in Vietnam would be critical in leading Richard Nixon and the Republicans to taking the presidency.REAGAN REVOLUTION (1981- ) Ronald Reagan is one of the most touristyizing presidents in our nations history and was the father of the last era of presidencies in the United States. Ronald Reagan defeated sitting president Jimmy Carter in the 1980 election. Carter will be remembered for the oil crisis and sport shortage, the recession, the Iran hostage crisis, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. This propelled the American people to elect Ronald Reagan, and not by a small margin. In 1980 Ronald Reagan won 489 electoral votes and 50. 8% of the popular vote to Carters 49 votes and 41%. In 1984 Reagan would win 525 votes and 58. Of the vote to Walter Modules 13 votes and 40. 6% . It was unprecedented to see a Republican to do so well nationally, as the South had been a Democratic lock. In the lead up to the 1980 election the South had been moving towards the Republican stronghold it has become. In the 1950 midterms, Republicans had won salutary two seats in the House from the South. In 1980 Republicans won around 40% of seats . As president, Reagan would oversee economic growth through dark taxes and using supply side economics, the pushing back of the Soviets and thawing of the Cold War, and progress of his goal to hiring the federal government (see figure 1).Reggaes view of conservatism has been obvious from then until now. George H. W. chaparral, Reggaes Vice President, would continue following Reggaes beliefs while president. In 1982 approximately 35% of the nation identified themselves as Republicans, by 1994 it had increased to 43%5. George render as president oversaw the fall of both the Soviet Union and Berlin Wall, led a successful Persian Gulf War, and would institute the Americans with Disabilities Act. President Bush would recede reelection when he raised taxes, against his promise of read my lips no immature taxes .This provided the oppo rtunity for a moderate Democrat from Arkansas, Bill Clinton, to win the 1992 Presidential election. Clinton continued to prove the economy, but in a different way than Reagan. Clinton balanced the federal budget by raising taxes and reforming the welfare systems put in place by FED in the New Deal. In line with Reggaes policies he ensured that there was free trade between North American countries with NONFAT. Following Clinton, George W. Bush was elect President based on many of his that would dictate his presidency (Afghanistan and Iraq).In addition to the wars, the ND of Bushs presidency saw the beginning of another major recession, leading to the election off liberal democrat, Barack Obama. Has the Reagan Revolution ended? We may not know for another 5-10 years. Despite Obama, a liberal Democrat, being elected president, many of Reggaes ideas are still championed by Tea Party Republicans. This faction of the Republican Party seeks a smaller federal government, smaller federal b udget, and more rights being returned to the states, as opposed to being federal issues.WHAT HAS CAUSED THIS PATTERN TO EXIST The past 150 years can be divided into four distinct eras. The first two marked by Republican presidencies, the third, and longest of the periods, a Democratic era, and finally a return to Republican control of the presidency with the Reagan Revolution. When looking at each era, a few things are evident one or two great presidents define every one of these time periods, those presidents party is the dominant party of the era, one bad presidency or event can end the era, and that in between each era there is some form of realignment.It is these conditions busy together that create a pattern of presidential dynasties to exist in America. The top 10 presidents in history are (in order) FED, Teddy Roosevelt, Lincoln, Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Wilson, Truman and Eisenhower. Outside of the invention fathers each of these presidents were part of one of these eras, every as the one whose ideologies defined the era or as the moderate of the other party who followed these ideologies, but with their partys themes.The only president whose policies defined an era not on this list was Reagan. According to a 2012 Gallup Poll 19% of Americans, the most common answer, thought Ronald Reagan is the Greatest in US history. Calluss top 10 consists of Reagan, Lincoln, Clinton, Kennedy, Washington, FED, Obama, Teddy Roosevelt, Truman, and George W. Bush. When broken down by party the results are similar. Figure 2 A great president defines an era, but how does the era end? These presidential dynasties end via a realignment of political issues in the United States.This can be caused by a single event in history, for example The Great Depression, or a bad president who brings forth a need for change, such as Herbert Hoover or, authorizationly, George W Bush, who impact is not yet known. The era of Lincoln ended when a trio of Republican presiden ts (Hayes, Garfield and Arthur) did nothing to move the country forward. The System of 1896 ended ender Hoover when the US entered the Great Depression allowing FED to win the presidency for the Democrats. The era of the New Deal and the Great Society ended when LB entered the Vietnam War.Finally the Reagan Revolution may have ended after the George W. Bush saddled the country with two wars and an economic crisis. While not all these presidents are historically bad, Lyndon B Johnson is historically remembered as an above intermediate president due to the policies enacted during the Great Society, the majority of these presidents are remember for the harm they caused to America rather than any good they may have provided. For example George W. Bush led us through the worst terrorist attack in American history, 9/1 1, but his failures outweighed his successes and have cost the Republican Party in Republican dominance.A different issue has defined each era, so what causes the changes in issues? Realignment is a dramatic change in an era of politics. This includes a change in the dominating issues, dominant party and even changes to the party bases. The signs of realignment include a flurry of political activity not normal to U. S. Politics (I. E. Progressive Era, New Deal, Great Society, Ergonomics), a single party controlling the House, Senate, and White House, and the emergence of a third party. To bring about a realignment, the new issue mustiness be one that cuts across the existing line of party cleavage. -James Conduits . Each of these eras had a cross cutting issue that divided the country, and therefore needed person to unify them. Lincoln had to deal with slavery, both the System of 1896 and the New Deal had to deal with economic hardship. The Great Society had to face the issue of race in America once again. Each of these issues divided the existing parties forcing individuals to realign based on new party beliefs. The issue cant be a small issue, su ch as a setting a national driving age, it must be popularizing that everyone must pick a side, like the issue of slavery during the Civil War.Realignment causes old cleavage issues to fade away. This can be seen today because the New Deal is no longer a dividing issue among people, while in the sasss and sasss it divided Republicans and Democrats across the country. A third party arises when both major parties in power straddle the issue. The third party squelchs one of the two major parties to relieve the issue and if not the third party rises power (e. G. Republicans and slavery during the sasss). The New Deal era is the best example of a realigning election. Franklin Roosevelt won 472 electoral votes and 57. 4% of the vote .In addition to the presidential election, the Democrats made big strides in Congressional elections. Democrats gained 90 seats in the House and nine in the Senate , signaling a major shift in issues for the At-enact people. WILL WE ENTER A NEW PRESIDENTIAL ERA OR HAVE WE REACHED THE END? Barack Obama is not a disciple of the Reagan Revolution, if anything he is a disciple of the New Deal. Does this mean the Reagan Revolution is over? Is Obama the beginning of a new era, dominated by Democrats? Or have we reached the point where the patterns are over and there will no longer be a dominant party in America?If you look solely at history it points towards the emergence of The Obama Era of the American presidency. Obama was president when the United States exited the recession, much like FED and McKinley. When he was first elected in 2008 it was the highest percentage of elector turnout since 1968, signaling the potential of it being a realignment election . The beginning of Beams first turn was filled with active legislating, including the passing of the Affordable Care Act. completely of these events fit into James Squints Theory of Partisan Realignment. What about todays current political conditions?Yes, many of the conditions that e xisted during Beams first term are similar to the pattern of other presidential eras, faction of the conservative right. The Tea Party fits in line with the small government beliefs of the Reagan Revolution and not Beams belief in a large, active federal government. If the Tea Party does rise to power its ideologies would be a shift from Beams. In addition to the third party not aligning with Beams views, their influence has been steadily decreasing over time. Secondly, there is no outbreak of political activity.The opposite is true as both the House and Senate find themselves gridlocked, unable to pass any legislation. Figure 3 The most recent Congress has been the least productive of the past 32 congresses . This is in part due to straight line disciple voting by members of Congress when both the House and Senate are almost evenly split in membership as is. During the previous presidential eras either members of Congress were able to work with each other to pass legislation or o ne party dominated the government so it was possible force any legislation through Congress.These conditions no longer exist as the United States Government becomes more and more popularized. Where does all of these leave the future America? It is always safe to look back because history does have a tendency to repeat itself, but with the current conditions it isnt likely that Democrats will hold the White House for a long time. Since Gallup began monitoring presidential approval ratings, starting with Harry Truman, the two presidents who have defined their respective eras, Reagan and Johnson, have both had just approval ratings above 50%, 52. 8% and 55. 1% respectively. Beams current average its below 50% at 48% .A president with an approval rating less(prenominal) than 50% isnt going to set the tone for future presidents if less than half the nation approves of him. Another strike against an Obama Era is following the 2008 election there was potential for realignment, but it neve r genuinely happened. Movements such as Occupy Wall Street faded away while the Tea Partys voice only got stronger. The Democrats had a chance to grab hold of the government but didnt take it. In the following 2010 midterm elections the Republicans picked up a net of 63 seats to gain back control of the House and a net of six seats in the Senate.This isnt to say that it is impossible for President Obama cant be the start of a new era of Democratic presidents but given recent history it is unlikely. CONCLUSION As President of the United States one has the potential to shape the nation. The electorate rewards these presidents (Lincoln, both Roosevelt, LB, and Reagan) by electing presidents who emulate those same positive ideologies. This led to the creation of eras of dominance by a single party. These eras produced some of most prosperous times in American history. However, the time of single party dominance has ended.The government has become more popularized, which has led to part isan gridlock. The people have been losing faith in the government to truly get anything done, which seems to be a result of new popularization, illustrated by the Do- nothing Congress. As a result the electorate changes its views and votes for the other party hoping they will actually be able to break the gridlock in government. This is not to say there will never be another great president like Lincoln or Roosevelt again, but the time of presidential eras is reaching its end, unless the federal government becomes less popularized.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Health Care Careers Diagram and Summary Essay

The role of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) in wellnesscare has become one of the main lifelines in the industry. The CIO is the some important person within an organization in regards to the collecting, organization, monitoring and securing of data. The CIO is a critical member of the executive leadership team. Charged with developing the organizations strategy, he or she is trustworthy for leading the IT staff and ensuring overall compliance with all regulatory requirements. The CIO is also responsible for keeping up-to-date with the latest engineering trends as well as threats and being able to adapt the organizations strategy to mitigate those threats. The CIO also facilities and drives change within the organization (Glaser & Williams, 2010).The CIO is responsible for establishing and maintaining many key relationships within an organizations leadership team. They work to provide valuable input that helps shape the entire organizations day-dream and path to success. The C IO reports consistently on the progress and development of all information technology (IT) projects, issues, and tasks. They are the brain of the business-body, monitoring and regulating all the data that passes through. Without CIOs, a healthcare company would collapse under the weight of unprocessed information. (Becoming a Healthcare CIO (Chief Information Officer), 2012)The CIO focuses on updating and optimizing existing systems while utilizing new systems in effect and efficiently. They are also responsible for updating and maintaining capabilities, strengthening policies and reworking procedures on a daily basis. The CIO is the front line of defense for protecting the organization against fraud and abuse, as well as securing all electronic patient health information (ePHI). The role of the CIO has evolved as the health care industry has faced changes with the dependency oninformation technology.Figure 1. Chief Information Officers responsibilities within a health care organiz ation. As shown in Figure 1, a health care CIO faces many challenges on a day-to-day basis. These challenges are in the form of maintaining existing systems, optimizing new systems, and protecting PHI. The role of the CIO will continue to evolve as the health care system changes and the dependency and regulations surrounding the role of information technology increase.ReferencesBecoming a Healthcare CIO (Chief Information Officer). (2012). Retrieved from http// Glaser, J. P., & Williams, R. B. (2010). The Definitive maturation of the Role of the CIO. Journal of Healthcare Information management, 21(1), 9-11. Retrieved from http//

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Active involvement through the study circle Essay

Introduction The battleground roofy is a dynamic process wherein the experience and participation of the participants makes up the educational system for this program. Since its beginnings, it has been set as an emancipatory method of t apieceing wherein a democratic arna for learning is present especially for young braggys. The idea underlying this is that learning could be acquired by sharing of participating members (Putu, 2006). History of Study Circle Aiming at transforming his country, a start wherein widespread poverty and a great gap between the suffering and rich exist, Oscar Olsson arrived at America in 1893.Olson is searching for a form of education or method that would be beneficial to transforming his country into a place where justice and liberty work side by side with democracy in order for its slew to educate or learn by themselves (Andrews, 1997). Olsson currently found out what he was looking for in America in an unlikely place, an adult education movemen t sponsored by the Chautauqua literary and scientific circle. From this adult education movement, Olsson was able to discover a form of education called Study Circle and is being referred today as the education by the people, for the people and of the people (Andrews, 1997).After learning or finding out about the Study Circle, Olsson came back to his country which is Sweden and here he began to write a series of get over about the Study Circle and incorporated his own theories and ideas about the method. At this time, Oscar Olsson principles and views are influenced heavily by John Dewey and it is known that he has the same philosophical, suppositional and practical approach to education to Tao Xingzhi and Yan Yangchu, both considered as scholars who were too influenced by Deweys teaching and principles (Persson, 2006).Olssons ideals made way for the creation of Sweden Study Circle in 1902 in the Lund branch of the International Order of Good Templar. First of its kind, the Stud y Circle emphasize four key areas concerning the Study Circle (Persson, 2006). They are the following 1) In order for everyone to join the Study Circle, the program must be cheap and in doing so, no one would be desist in joining or participating in the program because of economic reason. 2) The method must be simple that everyone wont have a arduous time participating in the discussion regardless of educational background or schooling.3) Participants shall meet as equals and have equal possibilities to voice out their opinions about their studies regardless of their social status or background. 4) Lastly, the library and books pass on play an important role in the education of the participants (Persson, 2006). For Olsson, the Study Circle is a method of organizing studies which focuses on the idea that every participant should educate himself. Study Circle educates its participants by letting them choose their own literature and actively communicating with another(prenominal) pa rticipants using their own knowledge during groups discussion and meetings.In doing so, Study Circle was known as forum of democracy, in which participants were held responsible for the contents and the method (Persson, 2006). Olsson also incorporated in the Study Circle the joy of learning. He reasoned out that by spending time and energy on education, the brain get out get a strong impression that knowledge is pleasure. Furthermore, Olsson agreed that continuous education and questioning could only be supplied by a stable melodic phrase and spirit (Persson, 2006). Review of Related LiteratureBasic Principles Underlying Study Circles Derived from the ideas of Oscar Olsson, didactic principles that emphasize the role of members in a group were laid blast to ensure that the Study Circle would function and work according to its purpose (Brattset, 1982). The principles describe the method as an active process, wherein knowledge ordain be realised into actions and social changes th at could promote development. According to Kindstorm (2002), the method espouses the following principles1) Equality and democracy The principles of democracy and equality allow the members to work hand in hand by allowing the exchange of views and information through dialogues and conversation. 2) Change and action Being responsible for the education of their fellow members, education on Study Circle wont just be concern on education but also the development of each member. 3) Study Materials Books and Libraries will play the role of teachers, as they will be the source of new knowledge and information for the members.What subject to learn or book to read will be decided upon by the members. 4) immunity and the objectives of Study Circle Study Circle emphasize the idea that freedom comes with responsibility. The members will have to work in accordance with organizations manakin while carrying out their educational duties and work. 5) Experiences and Co-operation their will b e no competing inside Study Circle and every members walk side by side with each other in trying to educate not only themselves but also their fellow members.Their experience and knowledge before entering the program will bring in new ideas and concept. 6) Active participation and continuous planning Determining the education level inside a Study Circle will depend on how active the members will be in the program. It is through participating that members will have the chance to voice out their opinion and case-by-case knowledge in front of other members and from this, learning from other people begins.Study Circle is built upon the active participation of its members. Furthermore, individuals may learn shell by setting up objectives and goals that will serve as their guide during the program. Although things might have changed because of the year gap, Olssons ideas set the standard for future Study Circles. Although other ideas came after the first Study Circle was created, the p rinciples that Olsson established were able to ensure that Study Circles will work as he envisioned them (Kindstorm, 2002).

Monday, May 20, 2019

Healthcare and Communication Essay

Abstract wellnessc are is a continuous growing area, within this field you are faced with many diverse refinements that fill unlike values, beliefs, practice and customs of a special group. Among the many challenges facing health treat is the role of lyric and cultural barriers that can affect health care and the quality of care that a unhurried may receive. Healthcare supplier interactions, preferred treatment of care are some of the cultural behaviors that are encountered in the daily decision making process. ethnical behavior and the value can affect such mapping in preventive health care, health related lifestyle, and sources of health related knowledge. The challenge in healthcare today is the number of the patient population that is diverse from the usual unite States population.Effective CommunicationThe harvest-home of the culturally and linguistically diverse population has led to many efforts to encourage or ensure that health care systems respond to the distin ct needs of culturally and linguistically different patients by becoming culturally competent Just as with the concept of culture, there are many definitions of cultural competency. However, most definitions are derived from one developed by mental health researchers who defined cultural competence as a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or amongst professionals and enables that system, agency, or those professionals to work efficaciously in cross-cultural situations (Cross et al. 1989, cited in Brach and Fraser 2000 182). Effective communication between patients and physicians who are culturally and linguistically different implies the employment of strategies to provide culturally competent health care.At a minimum, effective communication meaning that all participants in the communication comprehend and understand the content of the communication. Beyond this minimum, effective communication implies native feelings such as trust, empathy, and mutual satisfaction with the communication. In the case of patient-physician verbal communication during a clinical encounter, effective communicationmeans that both physician and patient. As a provider of healthcare you essential be able to understand the content of each others spoken communication thoughts related to the encounter, leaving no questions and thoughts unexpressed. You must have the patient feel that sufficient time is available for address and listening, and the overall satisfaction with the communication was successful.Language BarriersEnvironmental, socioeconomic characteristics and perceptual settings have a vast regard on communication. Researchers have taken surveys of micro groups of culture and Latinos as well as Hispanics have shown that ascribable to the outseter access of health care language barriers have had an adverse impact on patient appointments, how providers explain symptoms, and the understanding of terminology. Langu age and cultural barriers can be added to health behavior gets to illustrate their effects on access to medical care. For example, limited English proficiency and cultural unfamiliarity with the U.S. health care system can both be considered inhibitors or barriers in accessing medical care. The healthcare belief model shows the effects of f cultural differences on health care use are similar to those of language.Cultural differences often translate into cultural barriers that lower access to health care. However, the research on cultural barriers on access or use of health care is not as extensive as research on language barriers. Language and culture are used interchangeably so that the effects of culture may not be distinguished from those of language. Skill in a language does not of necessity bring with it cultural familiarity and competence. Providers can choose to learn a second language, let us say, Japanese, and survive sufficiently proficient that she is ilingual in Engl ish and Japanese. She may still lack cultural knowledge of Japanese culture, including values and beliefs about health and illness, traditional health treatments, and the experience of being a immigrant in the United States. Overcoming the language barrier is a major step in effective communication with Japanese address patients, but cultural differences can still affect the doctor patient relationship.Healthcare High and execrable ContextProviders in general need to be more(prenominal) empathetic when dealing with high and low context cultures, the quality of interaction is very serious. High text cultures tend to have a more moderate or suppressed expression of negative or confrontational messages, unlike the low context culture. In the low context culture silence and pauses are often misunderstood as the patient agreeing with the situation. Responsibility of communication lies with the provider, to be clearer of the information that is being transposed through provider patien t relationship. To repair the quality of care providers must be able to recognize patterns and body language, and take an emphasis on listening, and take note of response and speech. With the acknowledgement of these patterns providers and staff are able to reduce the amount of error that can occur in health care.Healthcare StereotypingStereotyping is a behavior used when there is indecision providers may apply this type of treatment when faced with medical decision making. Individual often throw negative associations in relation to various groups. African American patients have been viewed as slight educated, and less likely to comply with the providers instructions. Providers are often unaware of here bias decisions. One stereotype is that of calamitous Americans are less cooperative when it comes to medical procedures, this is called automatic stereotyping. To beat this type of treatment is vital that the provider communicates with patients understand the environmental stat e of these patients. Many patients who dont receive proper care is receivable to the cost of health insurance, lack of finance, and communities that are lacking proper physician care. Patient care must be treated as an equal.ConclusionThe healthcare field as been viewed as a field that has overcome many barriers, unfortunately thats untrue, many providers suffer from the lack of communication, and understanding why it is classical to break cultural barriers. Perception and disparities in health care are often stereotype those without health insurance, how well a patient speaks English, and lastly patient gender. As health care providers it is very important to understand the quality of care that is expected among cultures. Communication among the patient and physician can make or break the organization values.ReferencesNeulip, J. W. (4th Edition 2009). Intercultural Communication. In J. W. Neulip, A Contextual Approach. Sage Publications.Singleton, K., Krause, E., (Sept. 30, 2009) Understanding Cultural and linguistic Barriers to Health Literacy OJIN The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Nursing as a Profession Essay

The question of whether the practice of care for is considered a business or an occupation is an ongoing debate, much like the ongoing debate over what countersinks a affair. Several scholars have outlined criteria for considering an occupation to be a profession. Given a list of scholars and their criteria for what characteristics define a profession, I have chosen the list formulated by Lucie Kelly, RN, PhD, FAAN. Although the scholars works seem to deal similar criteria and any could be selected for comparison, I have chosen Kellys criteria based on her priming in the nursing profession. In addition to being a withstand, Dr. Kelly is a writer and a teacher. She compiled a list of eight characteristics of a profession in 1981 (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 66). Though they were written over 30 old age ago, Kellys criteria be good-tempered relevant to modern nursing practice.According to Kellys first criterion, a profession should provide a operate to humanity and to society as a whole (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 66). I imagine that there is no sustainable argument against the fact that this is exactly what nurses do. Nurses provide a service by caring for somebodys in our society who are ill or injured, and they educate and promote wellness in their communities. I believe that the nursing establishment certainly meets and possibly defines the requirements for this particular standard.I believe nursing also meets the second standard, which states that a profession should possess a special body of experience that is constantly get ond through research (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 66). nurse is based on science, but what sets the profession aside is the focus on the individual as a unique being and their response to health problems. treat is constantly being refined through evidence-based practice. Nursing is no longer based on running game and error but increasingly relies on theorydevelopment and research as a radix for practice (Chitty & Black, 2011 , p. 66).The third characteristic of a profession, according to Kelly, is that the service involves intellectual activities and that accountability is an of the essence(p) disport of those activities (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 66). I believe nursing also meets these requirements through the nursing process. In order to provide dish out for an individual, a nurse must assess the problem, decide on an approach (or plan of care), and implement that plan. The nurse has to be able to evaluate the outcome of those actions and adjust the plan accordingly. Autonomy is an important part of this individual responsibility. Nurses are held accountable for their individual actions by their employers, patients, and the public.Registered nurses today are required to meet strict educational standards before applying for licensure. Kellys fourth criterion requires practitioners to be educated in institutes of higher learning (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 66). chap or baccalaureate degrees are the mos t common education levels for registered nurses. Some diploma programs are still being run in hospitals, but their numbers are steadily declining (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 149). Graduate degree programs center on education, research, and advanced practice provide opportunities for nurses to progress in their careers.The fifth characteristic of a profession is the one that I think is most debated. It states that practitioners are relatively independent and regulate their own policies (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 66). Nursing is autonomous and self-governing. Over time, nursing has established its own values, ethics, and protocol. However, many would argue the actual performance of nursing itself still falls under the direction and control of physicians and administrators.Nursing is classically regulated in the expertness in which the nurse works by their institutional policies. Also, many people feel that because a nurse must have orders from a physician, they lack autonomy (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 66). This debate about autonomy ties in with the news on the third criterion. Nurses providenursing care autonomously they do not practice medicine.For the sixth of Kellys eight characteristics, the statement made is that practitioners are motivated by service and consider their work an important component of their lives (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 66). Nursing easily meets this criterion. I believe the majority of nurses, if asked why they chose nursing, would immediately respond that they sine qua non to help others or to make a difference. I believe most nurses derive their greatest enjoyment from nursing when they know they have done a good job, helped someone in need, or barely lightened the load that burdens a patient. Nursing is one of the purest forms of altruism as I understand it. The importance of their profession in their lives is apparent simply ask a nurse what they do.The seventh and eighth characteristics can be addressed together. The seventh chara cteristic is that a canon of ethics exists, and the eighth is that there is an placement that supports this code (Chitty & Black, 2011, p. 66). There are a number of professional organizations to which nurses belong. The ANA, or American Nurses Association, is the foremost nursing organization in the United States. The ANA sets policies, has established the most widely recognized code of ethics, and lobbies to promote the recognition of the theater of nursing (NursingWorld, 2012). All licensed nurses are regulated by their state board. Each state sets standards for desktop of practice.According to Kellys eight characteristics, the field of nursing certainly meets the criteria of a profession with little manner for debate. Over the last century, nursing has evolved from a task-oriented occupation to an intellectual profession through research, education, and organization. There are some barriers to complete acceptance of nursing as a profession. Nurses have a responsibility to t hemselves to advance their profession both internally and in the eyes of the public. I consider nursing to be a profession, and will continue to practice as a professional nurse to the best of my ability.ReferencesChitty, K., & Black, B. (2011). Professional nursing Concepts & challenges. (6th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO Saunders Elsevier. NursingWorld. (2012). Retrieved September 26, 2012 from American Nurses Association website http//

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Research Paper on William James and Functionalism

PSY 101 4/7/13 William jam and Functionalism I. Introduction William James (January 11, 1842 noble-minded 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist who had trained as a physician. He was the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. James wrote influential books on pragmatism, psychology, educational psychology, the psychology of religious experience, and mysticism. He was the brother of novelist Henry James and of diarist Alice James. In the summer of 1878, William James married Alice Gibbens. William James was born(p) at the Astor House in New York City.He was the son of Henry James Sr. , a celebrated and independently wealthy theologian well acquainted with the literary and intellectual elites of his day. The intellectual brilliance of the James family milieu and the remarkable epistolary talents of several of its members have made them a subject of continuing following to historians, biographers, and critics. James to a fault worked on galore(postnominal) theories included functionalism which is the second paradigm in Psychology. According to William James, functionalism untrue that the human mind served an adaptive role.It explored the function of thoughts and behaviors. II. What is functionalism in Psychology? Functionalism is a surmisal of the mind in contemporary psychology, developed largely as an alternative to both the identity theory of mind and behaviorism. This theory is built on the premise that human psychic states (beliefs, desires, pain, etc. ) be constituted solely by their functional role that is, they are causal relations to other intellectual states, sensory inputs, and behavioral outputs . Functionalism is a theoretical level between physical implementation and behavioral output.Therefore, it is antithetical from its predecessors of Cartesian dualism (advocating discrete mental and physical substances) and Skinnerian behaviorism and physicalism (declaring only physical substances) It is only concerned with the effective functions of the brain. Since mental states are identified by a functional role, they are said to be realized on multiple levels. In other words, they are able to be manifested in various systems as abundant as the system performs the appropriate functions. While computers are physical devices with electronic substrate that perform omputations on inputs to give outputs, our brains too act as physical devices with neural substrate that perform computations on inputs which lift behaviors. The Principles of Psychology is a monumental text in the history of psychology, written by William James and published in 1890. Jamess psychology included four methods analysis (i. e. , the logical criticism of precursor and contemporary views of the mind), introspection (i. e. , the psychologists learning of his take states of mind), experiment (e. g. , in hypnosis or neurology), and comparison (i. . , the use of statistical means to place norms from anomali es). III. The paradigm of functionalism The subject matter of psychology Psychology is the study of mental bodily process (e. g. perception, memory, imagination, feeling, judgment). Mental activity is to be evaluated in hurt of how it serves the organism in adapting to its environment. The methods of psychology Mental acts can be study through introspection, the use of instruments to record and measure and objective manifestations of mind, through the study of its reations and products, and through the study of figure of speech and physiology. The functionalists tended to use the term function rather loosely. The term is used in at least two different ways. It can refer to the study of how a mental process operates. This is a major departure from the study of the structure of a mental process, the difference between stopping a train to tear it away to study its parts (structuralism), and looking at how the systems interact while it is running (functionalism). The term function can also refer to how the mental process functions in the volution of the species, what adaptive property it provides that would cause it to be selected through evolution. Functionalism neer really died, it became part of the mainstream of psychology. The importance of looking at process rather than structure is a cat valium attribute of modern psychology. As an individual approach it lacked a clear formulation and inherited the problems of the structuralist corporate trust on introspection. IV. William James approach on functionalism Unlike Many Psychologist who were interested on structuralism (structures of the mind), WilliamJames instead was interested in consciousness and how it functions in individuals, especially in relation to behavior. Jamess psychology experiments with his students tended to be more curious adventures in consciousness and practical application. James taught at Harvard University from 1878-1890. During this succession, he entire his renowned psychologi cal work The Principles of Psychology in which he elucidated his functionalist insight into such subjects as consciousness, habit, and emotion. He was also became over saturated with the subject of functionalism and psychologyV. Functionalism vs. structuralism As soon as psychology started to make up scientific relevance, so started the debate over how it was most appropriate to describe behavior and the human mind. Structuralism was first introduced by Wilhelm Wundt. It was then formally named and established by one of his students named Edward B. Tichener who broke away from many of the previous ideas put forward by Wundt. Structuralism aims to describe the structure of the mind in terms of the most primitive elements of mental experience. It focused on the breaking down of the brains mental rocesses into its radical components. These basic components were then attempted to be discovered by a method known as introspection. self-contemplation can be defined as the examination o r observation of ones own mental and emotional processes. Structuralism is based on the idea tha t the aim of psychology is to check into how the elements are relate to each other which is done by the study into sensations, images and feelings. Functionalism was formulated as a reaction to structuralism and aims to explain mental processes in a more accurate manner than structuralism.It does this by focusing on the purpose of consciousness and behavior. It was brought forward by William James (1842-1910) and was derived from the theory of natural plectrum created by Darwin which suggests that unless characteristics of a species, including the processes in the brain, served some sort of purpose they would not be selected over time by nature and would not have survived. There are weaknesses to both approaches. Structuralism was criticized for lacking dependability in its results due to the study of the structure of the mind being too subjective. Others argue that it was oo concerne d with indwelling behavior that cannot be easily observed and therefore not easily measured. It could also be argued that occasional psychological problems cannot be solved by looking at the sensations of them alone and the mental operations that are promoted by functionalism have to be considered. VI. Conclusion Functionalism formed as a reaction to the structuralism and was intemperately influenced by the work of William James and the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin. Functionalists sought to explain the mental processes in a more systematic and accurate manner.Rather than focusing on the elements of consciousness, functionalists focused on the purpose of consciousness and behavior. Functionalism also emphasized individual differences, which had a profound impact on education. Work Cited * James, William. The principle of Psychology. Vol. 1 and 2. 1890. capital of Delaware publications 1950. * James, William. Psychology (Briefer Course) (1892) University of Notre Dame Press 1985 Dover Publications 2001. * Wade, Carole. Tavris, Carole. Psychology Tenth Edition. Upper Saddle River. Pearson Education 2011, 2008, 2006. * http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/William_James

Friday, May 17, 2019

The relative importance of the following marketing factors

The relative importance of the following trade factors in driving crop survival brand, theatrical role, distribution and pricing is commonly defined by a tot up of varied customer behaviors towards a incident product. somewhat of these behavioural traits whitethorn encompass taste, style, expression as sound as private trend(s). trusty and Service For instance, there are those consumers who would opt to posses a cello ph single with such as brand name as Sprint. By examining the basic features of the Sprint, it would be paramount to assert that, they innately captures the consumers imagination and more building a personal touch and class.Thus, it backside be argued that, when the consumers purchases this contingent brand, he or she is profoundly makeled by the desire to build a personal kin which is more established by the nature of his preference (Kotler, 1999). Despite the price variations with otherwise brands in the commercialize, also, the brands attribute, ma rket eminence as well as its status singularly, the consumer will definitely pay particular attention to the attributes of the given product chosen and it is here that a strong bond between the consumer and the products develops.This infers that, the chosen product will be in a position to provide unmatched renovations to the user, hence, reinforcing the overall customer-product relationship. Also other influential elements may take store, buying option, product, package, method of procuring among other market factors. Good Only Basically, when opting to a purchase a particular product or good, there are a number of unforeseen forces that determines which good is to be purchased.Though there are a number of attributes which may compel an psyche to consider a particular item, it would be essential to assert that, any purchase is greatly influenced by the desire to build a health relationship with the chosen brand whether be it for prompt use or not. Take for instance Colt is a brand name that is synonymous with top host experts more so, it is highly linked to professional marksmen. This is due to its qualities which include it loading and recoiling power, weight as well as the length and duration it corporation be used without jamming.Examining such attributes, it is fundamental to assert that, the market drives the given lymph node to seek a gun that is reliable, also due to the nature of its market status, such aspects as durability, price, brand trust as well as its value makes it a brand of choice among the gun loving clients. Therefore, it can be started that, there are a number of factors which drives a product choice, in case of good, such attributes as product stability, brand, price as well as its quality and this instrumentally have been cited as some of the major factors that are involved in shaping a client-product relationship (Fournier, 2003).As a result, the more a product or a good is steady the more the relationship is sturdy. hence, a nother profound aspect may be attributed to personal attitudes and outlook change are intrinsic to consumer(s) individuality and lifestyle towards the given good as well as the source of the given product, hence, an individual may be compelled to be associated with a Colt due to the brand which is market wise renown rather than purchase the new market entrants. Therefore, it would be essential to agree that, customers develop relationships with brands and the implications of this for brand management.Service Only Examining the service only markets, it is essential to assert that, consumers are more than often attracted by the very first characterisation of the service provided. This infers that, a bond was formed. Consider for instance, a movie fan may get subject to Paramount pictures productions due to the nature and of the quality of their movies, more so, this can also be due to the quality of their production in terms of theme, plot, storyline as well as how they employ suc h instruments as sound and visual effects to tell a story in their movies.Therefore, despite market influences which may include the scope of pricing as well as the trust developed towards a particular brand, it would be instrumental to argue that there are other factors which may compel a client to go for Paramount pictures instead of other film productions brands such as Warner or Columbia pictures. Some of these factors may entail individual preference making the client-product to go beyond emotionally level (Birger, 2003). ConclusionsA number of diverse elements are singularly influencing the manner the marketing issues of brand relationships and brand communities are being developed. It would be paramount to assert that, where a consumer develops a relationship with a brand, it is likely that, the quality, package, brand or other key aspects may have contributed to such a development. Consider the fact that, such marketing aspects as psychographic and normative characteristics have a profound impact on the manner a customer relates to a product resulting to its purchase or rejection.Marketers have found that, these features have an impact on purchase intentions and these variables include quality consciousness, deal proneness value consciousness, attitudes of reference groups and price consciousness (Freeman, 2008). It can be argued that, consumers behavioral approach towards an immediate product interest as well as its purchase is in one way influenced by the manner marketers employ strategic promotional aspects in order to build client-product relationship.And this can be attributed to two essential behavior theories pertinent to aspects of marketing namely utility possibility and the theory of reasoned action (Callingham, 2004). References Birger, W (2003). Marketing Strategy . Massachusetts MIT. Callingham, M. (2004). Market intelligence. NY OUP. Fournier, S. (2003). Brand relationship . Florida UMI. Freeman, J. (2008). Products and Branding. TUI. Kot ler, P, (1999). Management. NY OUP.

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Mans Impact on the Everglades Essay

Man has never been content to leave the natural preserved in the state in which it was discovered. Likewise, the Everglades ecosystem has been bombarded by this pressure as man seeks to redesign the purlieu to suit the needs of the ever encroaching human population. This has brought about leaden changes in this system and the way it operates. Collectors were among the first to extract a toll on this area because of its alien indigenous creatures. Species which now face extinction include several varieties of unusual Orchids and ferns, Florida tree snails, and the indigo snake. al iodine the impact of collectors is non merely limited to the disappearance of species. For example, collectors burned Hardwood Hammocks to facilitate collecting tree snails. The high up demand for feathers as the plumes of ladies hats alike endangered the Snowy Egret at one time. Another source of decease includes off road vehicles such as air boats and swamp buggies used to negotiate the difficult terrain. These vehicles urinate ever widening ground ruts because the tracks are slippery and subsequent vehicles avoid them.Because hydroperiod plays a powerful fibre in habitat determination, even a slight change in piddle depth cigarette profoundly progeny the composition of the ecosystem. Channels interrupting sheet flow provide an alternate route for the water. phytology is uprooted and lost, as a result, enhancing the likelihood of invasion by opportunistic species such as cattails. In whatever areas, off road vehicles have resulted in the wrongfulness of tree is reasons. Melaleuca, an Australian tree, poses a different sweet of the threat that of introduced species.The trees overtake Sawgrass marshes and Cypress swamps in areas reduced by drainage. Their tolerance of fire further enhances their spread. Eventually, sonorous forests form which exclude the natural vegetation and dry up the environment. Brazilian bombard began its stay in the Florida area as an ornam ental. Like the Melaleuca, it forms a closed forest, destroying feeding areas of many water birds. Brazilian pepper primarily overtakes coastal lowlands and pinelands. Over 200 plant species have been introduced successfully into the Everglades environment. Plants are not the only successful invaders.The Blue Tilapia, an animal intruder, grows too large to be eaten by the wading birds, while creating a devastating effect on the aquatic plant life. By far the most serious effect of man on the environment remains the alterations of water flow molds for agricultural and metropolitan purposes. The direct channeling of tonal water from Lake Okeechobee to the coast alters sheet flow, do soil fires and saltwater backflow. Faced by these ever fall scenarios, the Central and southeasternern Florida Project for Flood Control and other(a) Purposes (C&SF) took over the project in 1948.First, the C&SF built a perimeter to prevent encroachment of the sheet flow on developing metropolitan are as. Second, agriculture reclaimed the Okeechobee by draining the Lake swamp and rerouting the water to the Water Conservation fertile land directly south of Areas to the south. Total, Water Conservation Areas, which regulate water flow toprevent flood and drought, now found 32 % of the original Everglades ecosystem. Everglades National Park, complete in 1947, only contains 25% of the historic freshwater system. Other problems facing this ecosystem include the loss of wild life species diversity.Like the Snowy Egret, cracks, hunted for their hides, almost reached extinction until their sale was prohibited by law. Since that time, populations rebounded, however, bird populations still face intense reducing pressures. Wading birds come about the drying front during the drydown as the water flow concentrates prey at its b battle array. Wading birds, therefore, only need compensate minor adjustments to determine the position of food daily. Consequently, larger rookeries and breeding seasons coordinate with the water flow so the drydown approaches the nest, allowing the parents to fly less distance every successive day.The intrusion of the Water Conservation Areas though places this pattern in serious jeopardy. The levee system interrupts the drydown as conditions on one side may not correlated with conditions on the other. For example, birds following a drydown front may reach a levee only to discover that the crossways the embankment, the water is too deep or the drydown in that area may have already occurred. The birds because must search other areas for other prey concentrations which may not exist, seriously impairing successful reproduction. spend of the conservation areas for flood control and unnatural releasing of water also adversely effects these communities. lots this reverses the drydown fronts. Changes in the dry/wet season cycle, likewise, affect alligator reproduction, interrupting courtship and often drowning their eggs. Alteration of allig ator nesting patterns adversely affects the wading bird population because their holes customarily congregate prey during the low water season. Although, the television channel construction provides alligators a substituted habitat, these canals are sufficiently deeper and steeper than traditional gator nesting holes.Consequently, wading birds can not effectively harvest prey. Nutrient rich agricultural water released from the land reclaimed below Lake Okeechobee has increase the proliferation of cattails. Cattail encroached areas do not encourage food supplies for wading birds, essentially removing this wetland area from use. However, the South Florida Water wariness District has begun an experimental program using peat soil beds to remove this phosphorus from the water supply accounting entry the Everglades region. Methylmercury, a highly toxic form of mercury, recently has been found in regional fauna in unusually high levels.The food web concentrates this chemical in the syst ems top predators, causing mutations, abnormal growth and neurological disorders. Although, agriculture was originally blamed for this elevation, historical evidence provides a more than accepted theory. According to this hypothesis, soil formations naturally trap small amounts of mercury. Recent drainage and oxidation of the soil caused its release. Sugarcane burning, and incineration of other products including fossil fuel have also received blame for this phenomenon. Interestingly though, an contrary relationship appears to exist between phosphorous and mercury levels.The diversion of freshwater directly to the ocean from Lake Okeechobee also adversely affects Florida Bay. The lack of water cycling through the bay caused a severe increase in hypersalinity, killing seagrass beds, mangroves, fish, sponges, and birds. The hypersalinity level approximately doubles that of sea water. However, projects undertaken to remedy this situation appear to at to the lowest degree initially e ffective. Other reasons for this salinity increase include the lack of major storm systems recently in this area. Accumulation of sediments and shoaling prevent the bay from flushing out naturally, causing stagnation.Also the construction of Highway 1 and the afield Railroad may have contributed to the problem, hampering further the circulation of water. Any attempt by man to undo the damage perpetrated must come from a comprehensive understanding of the function and operation of the original ecosystem in order to prevent further well intentioned catastrophes. Wading birds, because of their high position on the food chain, serve as trustworthy indicators of change on this fragile environment. However, the main problem to be address is not one of abuse of the Everglades in particular, but mankinds underlying philosophy concerning our environment.We must realize that our survival of the fittest remains closely linked with that of our surroundings. Any threat to our biosphere will ev entually cycle through and transcend to affect us. The restoration of the Everglades is an ongoing effort to remedy damage inflicted on the environment of southern Florida during the twentieth century. It is the most expensive and comprehensive environmental repair attempt in history. 12 The degradation of the Everglades became an issue in the United States in the early 1970s after a proposal to construct a jetport in the Big Cypress Swamp.Studies indicated the airport would have destroyed the ecosystem in South Florida and Everglades National Park. 3 After decades of blasting practices, both state and federal agencies are looking for ways to balance the needs of the natural environment in South Florida with urban and agricultural centers that have recently and rapidly grown in and earnest the Everglades. In response to floods caused by hurricanes in 1947, the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project (C&SF) was established to construct flood control devices in the Everg lades.The C&SF built 1,400 miles (2,300 km) of canals and levees between the 1950s and 1971 throughout South Florida. Their last venture was the C-38 canal, which straightened the Kissimmee River and caused catastrophic damage to animal habitats, adversely affecting water quality in the region. The canal became the first C&SF project to be reverted when the 22-mile (35 km) canal began to be backfilled, or refilled with the material excavated from it, in the 1980s. The restoration of the Kissimmee River is projected to continue until 2011.When high levels of phosphorus and mercury were discovered in the waterways in 1986, water quality became a focus for water management agencies. Costly and lengthy court battles were waged between unlike government entities to determine who was responsible for monitoring and enforcing water quality standards. Governor Lawton Chiles proposed a bill that heady which agencies would have that responsibility, and set deadlines for pollutant levels to d ecrease in water. Initially the bill was criticized by conservation groups for not beingness strict enough on polluters, but the Everglades Forever Act was passed in 1994.Since then, the South Florida Water attention District (SFWMD) and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers have surpassed expectations for achieving lower phosphorus levels. A commission appointed by Governor Chiles published a report in 1995 stating that South Florida was unable to sustain its growth, and the deterioration of the environment was negatively affecting daily life for residents in South Florida. The environmental decline was predicted to harm tourism and commercial interests if no actions were taken to halt current trends.Results of an eight-year study that evaluated the C&SF were submitted to the United States Congress in 1999. The report warned that if no action was taken the region would rapidly deteriorate. A strategy called the Comprehensive Everglades getting even Plan (CERP) was enacted to restore portions of the Everglades, Lake Okeechobee, the Caloosahatchee River, and Florida Bay to undo the damage of the past 50 long time. It would take 30 years and cost $7. 8 billion to complete. Though the plan was passed into law in 2000, it has been compromised by politics and living problems.