Saturday, August 31, 2019
Eliot states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Home is where one starts from, as we get older, the world becomes stranger, the pattern more complicated. Ã¢â¬ I do agree with T. S. Eliot, and I do have one story about my past that will prove his quotation. When I was 4 years old, I thought that life was a fairy tale. A typical fairy tale where I would be married to a handsome prince, and we will live happily ever after. Life would be very simple and laid back.All I needed to do was to learn how to read, write, and count numbers. I didn't have any bills due at the end of every month, and I did not have to work very hard to get what I want. I remember those days where crying gave me everything I desired. I wish that I can stay young forever; however, that is not how life works. Life is about growing up and maturing whether I like it or not. As I get older, things become more complicated, and I learned that not everyone will always stay by my side. Especially my dad who died in the early age of my life. M y dad had been a huge art of my life.He molded me and taught me a lot of things about life. I learned that there will come a time where I have to stand up on my own, and not depend on someone to defend me. Time is the only thing that I could never bring back, no matter how hard I try. I Just wish I could make things right with my dad so he would know that I really love and cherish him always. I was seventeen years old when I lost my dad. I could still remember his warm smile that brightened up my darkest day. My dad have a slightly squint-eyes that guided me to the inner side of his soul.With is deeply tanned skin and calloused hands, I could proudly say that he worked hard day and night Just to give my family a better life. One day, a single car crash took away the life of my dad. If I could be with my dad again, I would treasure him more and take another chance to correct my previous mistakes. Regrets make my life miserable in different areas. Never a day that passes by that I do not ask myself, Ã¢â¬Å"What if my dad were still alive? Ã¢â¬ This thinking drives me crazy, and I wish I could travel back in time so I could make some changes; however, that is Just an illusion.Time is the only thing that we could never bring back, no matter how hard we try. I just wish I could make things right with my dad so he would know that I really love and cherish him always. My dad worked odd Jobs, took night classes to get his high school diploma, and raised us with love and discipline. I knew I wasn't an easy kid but he never complained, not even once. As a teenager, I always envied my classmates who have everything they ever wanted in life. Their parents were executives, ambassadors, or celebrities.One time, I saw Tiffany bragging about her Calvin Klein lack leather Jacket, a white mid-thigh length Dolce and Cabana sundress, and a pair of knee-high Giorgio Airman leather black boots. I felt insecure when I looked at myself, wearing my usual clothing; baggy t-shirt and Jeans. When I got home, I excitedly ran and knocked on my parent's room. My dad gestured his arms widely so I could give him a warm hug. With a big smile, I asked my dad if he could buy me some beautiful clothes so that I could feel beautiful like the other girls in my class. His face suddenly changed and I could trace the confusion from his eyes.With a gentle and raring voice, he told me that real beauty is about being comfortable in my own skin. It is about knowing and accepting who I really am. It is not measured by the brand of clothes I wear nor the amount of cosmetics I put on. Inner beauty comes from the inside and captivates the heart of a true person. I could see the sincerity in his eyes as he looked at me with integrity. I could sense the emotion and honesty in every word that he say. The 21st of August, 2013, is the most unforgettable tragedy in my life because that is the day when my dad passed away.The moment I woke up to repaper for school, my mom knocked at my door and with a shaky, yet gentle voice she told me that my father died in a car crash back in the Philippines. When I heard that, I was speechless; I was lost. My body violently shook, the fear ran cold in my veins. I broke out in a nervous sweat, but I could not stop shivering like I was suddenly in southern part of Antarctica. My fingers had held a vice grip onto the legs of my tights, my nails dug holes into the seams. Tears drenched in every inch of my face, all over my cheeks, and over my chin.Liquid ran down my neck and devoured y clothes beneath it. I wanted to stop shaking; I wanted to be able to breathe again. I could not believe that my dad is gone and I could not do anything because I am in America. All off sudden, our happy memories started to play in my mind. I remember when he went to my high school graduation; he was so proud of me because I was one of the top students. My dad and I went to the salon to get ready for my graduation. We rarely visit salons and malls due to lack of budget, but this time he said that he could buy me a new shoes because I did a great Job in school.He wore his favorite polo with a Ana blue neck tie and his hair is brushed on one side. When the principal called my name, he proudly stood up and accompanied me to the stage. My dad walked on the stage with a smile that is brighter than the sun, he hung the shiny gold medal on my neck. I felt like I am on cloud nine. The flowers danced and rejoiced over my success. I heard the people clapped their hands while the principal announced all the achievements that I had during my high school years. I remembered the day when we were at the airport, the day when I last saw my dad's beautiful face.We did not have any conversation on our way to the airport. The car was filled with silence and I felt the sadness in his eyes. I have a lot of things that I want to tell him, but I could not figure out what words would exactly fit the emptiness and grief that I am feeling inside. The moment that I laid my feet on the airport, my shoulders became heavier, hours became minutes, and minutes became seconds. The lady announced that we have to fall in line because our plane would depart in less than fifteen minutes. My dad held my hands and hugged me.I saw my ad's tears ran down his cheeks, but he tried his best not to cry in front of me. His once tanned face became red and looked like he would burst in tears in Just a matter of seconds. His red lips became pale and his hands are shaking. He ran his fingers through my hair and put it beneath my ears. My dad looked at me with sincerity and told me that he loved me. The words were so heartwarming that it left me with tears. I did not want to look at him anymore because it would only make me cry harder. Those memories would forever be treasured in my heart.I would never forget those detersives moments that I had with him. I regret many things in life. If only I could go back in time; then I wouldn't have to worry anymore. I cou ld be with my loved ones for as long as I could. I would make our time together to be as memorable as possible. I could correct those errors, and maybe my dad would know how much I loved him before he died. Since time machines do not exist, all I could do is to accept the fact that everybody would leave me; nobody would stay with me forever. Death leaves a heartache no one could heal, and love leaves a memory no one could steal.Without all those trials and circumstances, I would never be the person that I am right now: stronger and braver than I was before. What I did wrong before is that I never treasured the people that surrounded me. I thought they would be with me forever so I took them for granted. Life is so unpredictable, which makes it challenging. Growing up is not easy especially when a huge part of my life is gone; however, that is how life works. People come and go no matter what happen. The main question is, are we prepared to lose someone during our Journey in life? 1 572 words
According to the United Nations, The values of freedom, respect for human rights and the rule of holding periodic and legitimate elections by universal suffrage are vital elements of democracy. In turn, democracy provides the natural environment for the protection and effective realization of human rights. These standards are embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and further developed in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights which enshrines a host of political rights and civil liberties underpinning meaningful democracies. The relation between democracy and human rights is captured in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Ã¢â¬Å"The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.Ã¢â¬ With this notion, Martial Law in the Philippines only proves that during that time, Human Rights and Democracy is not totally practiced in the whole nation. The circumstances of arrests, detentions and searches made without court orders are common practice during the martial rule. The fundamental principles of legality and due process have been neglected, with security forces having unprecedented powers given by the head of state under this martial law. Election frauds were also perceived. Justice among those involve were deserted and abandoned and Justice for the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s democracy were put in to trash. Martial rule and suspension of writ of habeas corpus, which allows warrantless arrests, detention and conduct of searches, have been a convenient solution for the police forceÃ¢â¬â¢s incompetence in enforcing their rudimentary duties. The soldiers have cemented their de facto superiority over the police in conflict areas. But thirty one year had already passed, and the Armed Forces of the Philippines have repeatedly been accused of involvement if not actively engaging in the killing of defenceless political activists. The AFP restates that they never will have a rule of intentionally targeting civilians as well as those who may have a different political orientation from our government for as long as they detain their resist within legal and legislative means. The AFP remains committed inÃ their duty to help ensure that the Philippines progresses as a democratic society free by armed threats. Their answer is explicit in the AFPÃ¢â¬â¢s code of ethics in support for peace initiatives. Furthermore, the AFP will persist to fully assist with fact-finding bodies formed by proper authorities. But investigation should be based on valid pieces of evidence as determined by courts and not simply on given away allegations. With proper procedure the AFP makes it a point that Justice is served to each and every Filipinos. Their faults in the past should not be carried today, for the scenario and period is different. Changes in the agency only attest that they are coping with it in order to have Justice in every aspect of their post. References: * United Nation. 2012. Democracy and Human Rights.[Online] accessed from http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/democracy/human_rights.shtml on December 09, 2012 * Asian Human Rights Commission. 2009. Philippines: Martial Law Dilutes Human Rights [Online] Retrieved from http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/WO0912/S00305.htm on December 09, 2012 * General Hermogenes C. Esperon Jr. 2007. The AFP in a democracy:protecting human rights [online] ebook downloaded last December 09, 2012
Friday, August 30, 2019
Think Piece Sociological Significance and Individual Behavior What is the relationship between Ã¢â¬Å"definition of the situationÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"socially Ã¢â¬â constructed reality'? Our social construct provides us with basic assumptions of everyday life. These social influences have an affect on our perception of reality and situations. While with a group of people you mainly hang out with the definition of a situation of a situation will be similar, because you all are from the same social group: and have similar social backgrounds.But if you are not with a group that you are not familiar tit it may not be so easy for you all to see the situation the same because your social reality are different. Example: In an urban neighborhood where Tim, and his group of friends hangout during the day and night, they often hear gunshots. So one night Time's cousin Johnny came to visit from his mansion in Texas. While they were outside hanging out gunshots were heard. After hearing the gun shots Tim and his friends continued as if they heard nothing.Sonny's reaction was very different than Tim and his friends in fact he felt very uncomfortable. Because Tim and his group of friends are accustomed to that social structure their interpretation of the situation was different than Johnny, because in his social reality that doesn't and should not happen. This example explains how a persons social reality can change how they interpret the definition of a situation. Why are these important in explaining the social influences on human behavior?These are important in explaining human behavior because our chosen behavior is determined by our social influences and social surroundings (socially Ã¢â¬â constructed reality) which determine how we react and interpret situations (definition of a situation). Why is it that social influence is very often more useful for predicting Ã¢â¬â or explaining Ã¢â¬â the behavior of an individual person than would be there psychological fr ame of mind? Though we take part in the social construct of reality, it's still not entirely a product of our own doing.Our social influences make us who we are and affect how we act and handle situations. Even though we have our own thought we still live our lives through what is socially acceptable. So observing a psychological frame of mind may not be as accurate because we say one thing, but in a social setting we handle it differently. Example: Elevator Video The people on the elevator knew that it was not their norm to turn backwards in the elevator.But they still wanted to conform to what seemed socially normal at the time, so they turned around Just like everyone else in the video. So even though we have our own thoughts and feelings about situations , our social influence and social setting still determine how we behave. If anyone could have asked the independent variables on the elevator if they would turn backwards on an elevator if everyone else was doing it they would h ave more than likely answered no, but because o the social pressure to conform they behaved totally opposite.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Copyright enforcement - Digital Piracy - Essay Example Thus, policymakers necessitate assessing and calibrating their copyright policies in order to ensure that these strategies can effectively reduce the number of digital piracy events and provide creators with ample incentives to generate new things. The paper deals with understanding different issues regarding piracy in the digital environment. The major objective is to understand the attempts made through enforcement of law and also to provide certain solutions in order to avoid the detrimental occurrences of digital copyright piracy (Litman, 2006). Overview of Digital Piracy In present days, digital products have much demand in the market particularly for young consumers. The easy reproduction and sharing of digital products makes it very attractive to transmit the pirated contents with less effort and time. Those who are related with digital breach of copyrighted products also take the benefit of this market, where young consumers frequently prefer convenience rather than quality, particularly when expediency is a vital aspect (for instance, movie or live program of a major sporting event) (OECD, 2009). Unlike other markets, the products of digital market have a large number of suppliers whose major objective is to achieve more acknowledgements and appreciations within a peer group, rather than making profit. Hence, these suppliers provide free access to users for enjoying the digital content. This activity is continued because the cost of imitation and distribution of digital products is negligible. Unlike other industries, where copyright possessors need to struggle with pirates, who provide the similar products at a much lower cost, in the digital products market, the copyright possessors also require competing with pirates who are ready to provide the similar digital products at almost zero cost. In these circumstances, the non-price aspects such as authority, accessibility and quality have become particularly vital in permitting digital product suppliers to sustain in the market. The basis for survival of illegal digital piracy, where pirated products are traded against certain price, seems counterintuitive due to high competition from genuine product providers and introduction of several open access websites. When digital pirates function in the market they probably can enjoy remarkably high amount of revenue by taking advantage of low cost activities, particularly if they are capable of misrepresenting them in front of the users as genuine creators of digital products and can charge price accordingly (OECD, 2009). The pirates of digital products function in different nations which come under different jurisdictions, thus having different regulations. These differences obstruct the efficiency of legal enforcement for preventing digital piracy activities, further making it more challenging and expensive. Nations that have strong copyright protection have low rate of piracy events. However, without effective enforcement of laws, cop yright protection cannot be succeeded. Moreover, the flexibility of digital piracy provides pirates an opportunity to change their functions effortlessly to those markets where legal commands are poor (OECD, 2009). Influencers of Digital Piracy The major influencer of digital piracy is computer. The features of computer along with internet simplify the collection and distribut
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Business accounting - Assignment Example Whole Foods Market, Inc.Ã¢â¬â¢s current ratio will not allow them to take more debt as compared to previous years. Although, Whole Foods Market, Inc. has made short-term investments but still there is no significant impact on the current ratio. The overall condition of current ratio reveals the fact that the current ratio which is not pretty stable and healthy as compared to the industry practice. Quick Ratio: Whole Foods Market, Inc. quick ratio is lower than the industry average. The reason behind this is the improper working capital management which makes the quick ratio more tentative in the last three years. The overall signal of Whole Foods Market, Inc. liquidity is not good and it sends a negative signal towards the debt holders and also on the debt market. Moreover, the liquidity crunch problem makes the performance of Whole Foods Market, Inc. slightly vulnerable. Debt to Equity: Dependency on debt financing is not a bad habit but it has consequences if you rely on more. Whole Foods Market, Inc. debt to equity ratio is lower in comparison with the previous year. The factors of business volume, Inc.rement in sales, fulfilment to pay the suppliers and acquisitions of fixed asset. Due to the expansion in business, Whole Foods Market, Inc. has plenty of financial obligations, most of which has been acquired through debt. In 2008, Whole Foods Market, Inc. reliance more on debt financing as compare to the previous years. Interest Coverage Ratio (TIE): This ratio suggests the fact that TIE ratio is higher in comparison with the industry because of company entertain its business with high proportion of debt financing. Although the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s management runs business successfully and this is shown in the EBIT which suggest that the Company is keep improving in the EBIT year by year. In comparison with the ability of paying interest expense is fine in comparison with he industry
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Software Engineering and Novel Programming - Essay Example After thorough research done by software engineers and some independent programmers some of the programming languages like BASIC, Pascal etc., were developed. After realizing the importance of using software technologies government agencies in collaboration with private sector companies started development research in programming languages. Companies like IBM, Microsoft, Apple, etc., realized very early what the future holds for them. They quickly grabbed the opportunity and invested heavily on software engineering research. The final result was huge. Many programming languages like C, FORTRAN, COBOL, etc., came into the picture. It's the research and analysis done by the scientists and programmers in software engineering yielded fruitful results in the development of different programming languages, which became more and more user friendly. The main purpose of these programming languages was to develop applications that could be used in everyday life. The researches involved finding potential problems in programming languages and resolving them. The researchers found the flexibility of a language enables it to be used by more clients. Another important factor probably the most important one is the cost. If the final product is expensive there will be only few takers for it. Therefore research has been done to create cost effective applications by using programming languages. ... It saves time and very cost effective. Another important feature developed by the researchers was reverse engineering. In reverse engineering the work is done from final stage to the initial stage. The main purpose of reverse engineering is to extract the code from the final product, working on the final product to the scratch. By using reverse engineering technique one can extract their competitors application and introduce own application in the market accordingly.Today programming languages are termed as procedural programming languages, Object-Oriented programming languages and visual programming languages. Procedural languages like C, FORTRAN etc. uses top down approach in programming. Microsoft Windows 95 and 98 were programmed in C. Visual programming languages like Visual Basic were mostly based graphical user interface (GUI). Since they were very user friendly they became very popular. Object-Oriented Programming languages (OOP's) like C++, Java etc., uses bottom up approach . Java is based on OOP's concepts. It uses bottom up approach. Sun Microsystems developed Java. The OOP's concepts are one of the important features of Java. These concepts are classes, objects, message passing, data encapsulation, data abstraction, polymorphism and inheritance. These are the result of research done by programming experts. Compared to C++, applications created by using Java runs very slowly. Because of the absence of pointers creating viruses in Java is not possible. Java can be simply described by Java buzzwords developed by the Java team. The buzzwords are simple, secure, portable, object-oriented, robust, multithreaded, architecture-neutral, interpreted, high performance,
Monday, August 26, 2019
Gap, Inc. Retailing Analysis - Essay Example GapÃ¢â¬â¢s trouble in 2001 At the time of Millard Drexter, there were 200 underperforming stores of Gap Incorporated that continuously operate. This specifically decreases the level of profit generation considering that the entire operation of the company continues in a regular manner while generation of revenue came into a downward spiral. Unfortunately, financially speaking Gap Incorporated could not eventually continue to operate in this condition. This is an issue of lack of management perspective and outlook. The company lacks appropriate evaluation system in order to identify its weakest and strongest areas. Unfortunately, this continues to operate and in 2001, the financial performance of Gap Incorporated received substantially small net margin for income. Compared this with the performance of other retailing companies, Gap is far behind and the whole opportunity is lost for the good of its competitors. There is another important view that Gap Incorporated under the manageme nt of Drexter was overlooked. There was lack of market research that could determine customersÃ¢â¬â¢ preferences and needs. This eventually is the reason why Gap Incorporated misjudged fashion trends in 2000. It tried to create trendy apparel for young adults but it was not creating greater impact in the market. Customers were ending up choosing other fashion options due to some important reasons including their own style. For instance, it is important to know that American consumers spend less on clothing due to the fact that fashion does nowadays does not only include clothes but other accessories and technological gadgets. For instance, iPods and iPhones are considered part of the fashion trends among American consumers. Normally, niche markets for growth opportunities are the most significant view in apparel retailing industry. However, the market is continuously expanding and there are added segments that need to be clearly understood further. In the United States, size fitti ngs among Americans change over 60 years. In line with this, more data are necessary to be gathered in order to find out the best fittings for Americans. Apparel industry is also competing with vacation, housing and automobile industries. These industries at some point minimize the level of revenue intended for Apparel industry. Thus, with the consumer and market research, Gap Incorporated for instance will be able to identify the right move in order to stimulate needs for its product offerings at the right timing. There is also another important marketing trend that needs to be understood by Gap Incorporated. This is in line with the declining significance of department stores in the US apparel industry. This is how important marketing research is. It tries to help retailers understand consumer behavior and the entire market in general. Understanding consumer behavior means knowing exactly what they prefer over the other offerings available for them. GapÃ¢â¬â¢s spectacular turnar ound in 2003 Gap was able to remarkably have itself applauded for its honesty with respect to improving the working conditions for the manufacturer of its garments in factories. This created a certain level of trust that promotes more than just a promising output. This remarkably opened up the possibility of increasing customer relationship and to ensure trust and loyalty in the end. Not only that, Paul S.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
International entrepreneurship -2 - Essay Example Until the 21st century, there were a number of international entrepreneurs who have developed great products that are currently used by people across the world. This paper will however focus on the activities and the birth of mobile and electronic giant Apple Inc. the birth and growth of Apple will be critically analyzed with a bias towards its strategies, international market shares, growth trends and the potential. The entrepreneurial spirits of the founders who coined and pursued the idea to the end will also be evaluated in order to develop an idea on the challenges and strengths that the company possesses. Introduction The purpose of this report is to provide an in-depth analysis of a company that is considered as a perfect example of an international entrepreneurship project. Apple Inc, a company based in California United States will be studied with an aim of getting insights into the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profile and practices. In doing this, the report will review the motivations and the reasons for starting the business. The personal profiles of the founders, educational backgrounds, family information and financial abilities will also be evaluated. The market share and capitalization of the company will also provide great information of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth progress and abilities as compared to other market players and competitors (Beech and Jiang, 2012). Profile of firm Ref Description Response 1.1 Company age Apple Inc is today 36 years old, having been established in 1977 by three young entrepreneurs. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s based in Cupertino, California (Beech and Jiang, 2012) 1. 3size (no of employees/sales turnover) Today, Apple Inc has over 72,800 employees in worldwide working in their laboratories, retail stores and operating their online stores (Apple, 2013). The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s Market capitalization is $416.46 billion in 2013, a value which has shown significant improvement when compared with the previous financial year (Linzmayer, 2009). It also had a Total sales of $164.46 billion in 2013, a value that improved if compare with the previous years (Beech and Jiang, 2012). 1.4 Industry sector Apple Inc operates under Computer, information technology and mobile telephony industry and is today operating in the entertainment sector through its online music stores (Lashinsky, 2012). Main offerings The products offered by apple Inc include Computer hardware such as mackintosh computers, apple computers (Martin, 2011). The company also markets Computer software such as iMac iOS operating system, iCloud Mobile devices such as Apple Smartphone, iPhone Audio digital devices such as iPad, digital audio and music stores. 1.4 Main domestic/international market Domestic market include United states of America International market include Europe, Asia especially China, South American countries and Africa. 1.5 If international, no. of markets percentage of sales as exports The total percentage exports to china during the financial year 2012 were 5%. Europe constitutes the major percentage of appleÃ¢â¬â¢s international exports at 14% in 2012 (Martin, 2011). Demographic profile of entrepreneur Ref Description Response 2.1 Age, gender, education, marital status Steve jobs remains the main entrepreneur and brainchild behind the apple we see and know today He Started the business while 22 years old. Steve went to reed college but dropped out before completion. He was a Zen Buddhist believer and was married to Laurene Powell and
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Exploration of The Challenges Affecting the Implementation of Distance Learning System in Higher Education Institutions - Dissertation Example As such, a challenge like inadequate leadership and management can be solved by redesigning the leadership and management structure of organisations that tend to be affected by a such challenge (Dettmer 1997). Arguably, such a measure, which is highlighted by TOC can be used to improve performance of the organisation because organisations that have better results have been associated with competent and effective leadership and management. In another dimension, TOC is used to understand both internal and external constraints. This means that external challenges such as cultural differences could be analysed and articulated upon by a way of understanding dynamics of how gender and language barriers could be approached differently in order to improve organisationsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance. General system theory In an attempt to actualise functionality of GST, this theory stipulates on several levels through which organisations can improve performance. The most notable one is the static struc ture (Greene 1999). This level is analysed to represent the anatomy of the universe. It is represented by the patterns of electrons around a nuclear (Weckowicz 2000). However, whereas such anatomy can be used to explain complexity of an organisation, some important aspects of external challenges facing an organisation cannot be well addressed since they cannot be part of the nuclear (of the organisation). Challenges such as different learning styles by different students and gender-based participation barriers appear to be forces outside the organization. Besides, distance learning encompasses diversification of a single organisation into a complex set of education tools to be used by a single organisation. Therefore, it would be difficult to focus or address some of the challenges affecting distance learning using this theory. Contingency theory The emphasis of this theory is mainly on the importance of leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and the situation under which the leader operates ( Bacher 2007). In essence, Fielder Edward and his associates outlined two main styles of leadership that is articulated by the theory; task motivated and relationship motivated style (Donaldson 2001). As much as these two styles can be put into the context of helping to improve distance learning organisation, there is much that needs to be looked at especially on how such motivations can be applied in the context of issues affecting other persons/stakeholders of the organisation apart from the leaders of the organisation. In light with this, challenges emanating from students and the environment cannot be solved using this theory. Socio-Technical Theory In regard to the challenge of inappropriate digital infrastructure, it is apparent that this theory can shade some lights on how to approach such a challenge (Miner 2007). This is in light with what the theory underpins its argument that an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s technical sub systems which comprises tools and techniques that can be im proved by adjusting social systems in order to maximise organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance (Avison & Fitzgerald 2006; Jackson 2000). However, challenges such as cultural differences of students, who in the relation to the theory are customers, cannot be addressed using the theory because its main focus is on how to improve the performance of the organisation, which in this case are the employees and their wellness. Communication System Theory As much as this theory can be
Friday, August 23, 2019
Meterology - Essay Example produced by a tornado of 1953 in Flint, Michigan in which 115 people were died; however, death toll remained less than a tornado of 1947 in Woodland, Okalahoma, when 181 people were killed. A well advanced tornado warning was issued by the local meteorological office as well as special updated were released by National Weather Service. A great coordination between meteorological and administrative agencies enabled the general public in advance to take necessary safety measures and thus saved many lives. However, despite of taking all the measures, tornado was strengthened enough that it not only produced tremendous loss of infrastructure but also caused 162 human fatalities and moderate to severe injuries to more than 1000 people (Reuters, 14 Sep, 2011). This paper explains several aspects of Joplin Tornado which include the synopsis of the incident with the help of real-time dealing with of the event, loss of human life and damage to businesses and properties, and some statistics as well. At the end, few points are suggested for forecasters to improve their forecast related to any such occurrence in future. A tornado is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a rotating column of air ranging in width from a few yards to more than a mile and whirling at destructively high speeds, usually accompanied by a funnel-shaped downward extension of a cumulonimbus cloudÃ¢â¬ (http://www.the freedictionary.com). Tornadoes appear in a number of sizes and shapes; however they are often in the style of an observable condensation funnel, as their thin end meets the ground and are oftentimes surrounded by clouds containing waste and dust particles. The majority of tornadoes possess violent winds having speed not less than 110 miles per hour, however, a lot of severe tornadoes can gain the wind velocities greater than 300 miles per hour with an extension of width well over two miles around, and remain to the earth for a great deal of about more than 100 miles in length (Edwards, 2006). The strength of a
Total Quality Management and Its Aspects - Assignment Example The paper tells that TQM is the name of a planned approach that is intended to implant necessity of quality in all organizational processes from the core management systems that are focused on achieving various goals and objectives in addition to ensuring customersÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction to the supplier relationships and motivation needed to maintain rapport between the members of an organization. The bedrock of TQM is based on reducing different errors happening during the production process that is capable of tarnishing consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfaction. Basically, it illuminates the way to make the idea of customer-defined quality possible, so that the other competitors in the market cannot take advantage of the poor quality. Introducing the concept of quality is not the effort of just one person but, its concept began to form when the competition in the business world became quite fierce and each organization made quality its top priority, and that also gave quality a strategic meanin g, with the result that presently TQM is the concept that is broadly used to define quality. The process of TQM can work practically with effective results, only if everybody involved in maintaining the highest quality knows how TQM actually operates. The basic structural plan of TQM is organized by senior management generally and implemented by those who have to cope with the strategies involved in the production area like supervisors and employees. So, almost everybody in an organization at every level is involved in this process. Ensuring that everything is operating well is the core strategy involved in operating TQM intelligently. According to Chryanthou, TQM works well when everything is made to focus on customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and the type of quality preferred by them is tried to be achieved. Quality errors should be reduced so that the businesses make customers the center of attention. Agreeing on different plans, all of which focus on customers, is the main way TQM operates successfully. That is because the concept of quality, itself, is centered on truly meeting the expectations of customers. Considering this, it can be said that TQM is broadly a customer-focused concept that should be manipulated to handle the competition in the market.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Initial Personal Development Plan Essay Study skills. During my GCSEs I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure what I wanted out of life. I chose to study French, Graphics and History. I enjoyed French the most and did quite well in it, however if I had concentrated more I couldÃ¢â¬â¢ve done a lot better. I was also working in my dadsÃ¢â¬â¢ cafÃ ©. I enjoyed working at the cafÃ © a lot. It was hard at times to manage my time between School, working at the cafÃ ©, going to football practice and also making time to do homework and revision. In class I enjoyed myself a lot and got my work done fast so went on to do extra question or Ã¢â¬Ëbonus questionsÃ¢â¬â¢. When I was in the classroom environment I felt more confidant in my work as I had the teacher to double check if I had any doubts but because I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t go over my work at home I feel it put me really behind .However having to juggle school, work, football and revision was very stressful and I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do well as well I would have liked which put education in a negative light for me. I did consider at one point to stop my education after leaving school while I was at school because I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe I would be able to handle the pressure, however I knew that education is a very big part of my life and my familyÃ¢â¬â¢s life as everyone has been to university in my family so I felt I had to go to college and further my education. Through this time my teachers were very helpful, I found it hard to ask for at first but when I did seek advice it was definitely the right choice. It made it clearer what I wanted in the long term and helped boost my confidence a bit in my work. After school had finished, in the summer I worked full time in my dadsÃ¢â¬â¢ cafÃ © and learned a lot of new skills. I worked at the front of the shop. This made me in charge of taking orders, making sure the customers were happy, making sure the chef understood what the customer wanted, deal with complaints and come up with a fair solution. I got to experience what itÃ¢â¬â¢s like to run a business first hand, I got experience in taking stock, ordering stock, deliveries, cash handling, making targets, pushing sales, customer service and sorting the rotas out. This was my first time having a proper full time job, it was hard at times as at the beginning it a new environment and I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t used to it, however I soon realised that one of my strengths is that I can adapt to new environments rather fast which has helped me in other jobs. While at college I studied Psychology, Sociology and English language/literature. I preferred psychology to my other subjects as I find behaviour very interesting and the cause behind it. Studying at college was a completely new environment, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the same pressure as I did at school from my teachers, but however I had more pressure on me to get my work done on my done. I got a part time job as sales assistant in a mens shirt shop. The job was a one person shift job, so it was all up to me to make sales, attending to all the customers, making sure the shop was in a selling state. I soon moved from being just a sales assistant to supervisor which gave me more responsibility, I opened and closed the shop, cash handling, did the banking, ordering stock, sorting the delivery and sorting the rota. Again working and studying was quite stressful, but as I was enjoying my courses at college I did not find it as stressful as I did at school. I had more freedom and also more time so I was able to manage my time a lot better without the pressure. When it comes to my strengths and weaknesses, I sometimes feel my strengths can by my weaknesses. I have a strong sense of empathy which makes it a lot easier for me to get along for with different people and be able to communicate with them on their level. Also being able to speak more than one language has helped too, I speak English, Kurdish, Arabic and a bit of Swedish. Having a strong sense of empathy can be a weakness as I can be too pleasant towards people and can be a push over, but I can stand my ground if need be. I am very strong about my morals and I know where to draw a line between whatÃ¢â¬â¢s right and wrong. I believe one of my biggest strengths is my will power. IÃ¢â¬â¢m very driven when it comes to my work, when IÃ¢â¬â¢m in a selling environment IÃ¢â¬â¢m very comfortable. Sometimes I am too driven and I can ignore things on the side. Being a very goal oriented person I sometimes forget to enjoy myself and spend too much time achieving my goals. Coming for the middle east a region that is very rich in oil and gas, I am inspired to work in the field. Not very many people from my part of the world work in managing our local resources, I wish to be able to work managing oil and gas and ensure all members of society benefit from the riches of the industry. One of my lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams is to open an orphanage and educate the less fortunate. I firmly believe that an education is the only way to eradicate the social ills affecting my region. I am a firm believer in the fact that education is the cure for all evils. I hope by educating myself as a women from a region where education is not very common I hope to able to stand on my own two feet so as to be able to help others better themselves.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Study On The Importance Of Green Banking Finance Essay Introduction In our life money has always play an important and crucial role in almost in every aspect. And in this, bank is an institution which mainly deals with money. According to Freixas and Rocher bank is an institution whose current operations consists in granting loans and receiving deposits from the publics (1999, p1). Till date, the banking industry has improvised his products and facilities to provide it to their customer. No one has imagined that 100 yrs ago, that bank will play a crucial role in 21th century. Now banks are influencing the development and the growth of the economy in the way of both quality and quantity. The major source of financing investment of banking sector is from commercial projects which are important for economic growth. Hence, for promoting socially responsible investment and environmentally sustainability banks play a vital role in it. As we know banks themselves is not a polluters but its having relationships with some companies and institution which are p olluter or could be in future. Banks are environmental friendly as in term of pollution and emission in its sector. In banking sector the internal environment impact is very low and clean as in the usage of water, energy and paper. The impact is not related with banks activities but with it customers activities. Therefore, the impact of external activity is enormous which is difficult to estimate. And environmental management is like a risk management it increases the value of an institution and lowers down the loss ratio. Thus banks should encourage prudent lending and environmentally responsible investment to the institution. Further those industries which are become green and those which are on its way to get green they have to fulfil the priority to lending by the banks. This process of finance can be called as Green Banking to restore the natural environment banks makes the industries to grow green. The concept of green banking will be equally beneficial to the industries institution banks and economy. Internationally, banks and institutional investor for environmentally responsible/ socially responsible investment projects having their growing concern about it rate (Earth submit, 1992). Financial institution and bank can effectively achieve this goal because they have played an intermediary role in an economy and to the number of investors. Now-a-day environmental issue is not only a concern of the government and direct polluters, it also a concern of those institutions which are stake holders and partners of their business. So the bank and other financial institution can provide a vital support in maintain the environmental protection and sustaining the economic development. The bank operate on long term return on their investment and credit, due to the environmental liability there is risk of non -payment and in the reduction of value in credit extension and investment. So it will get more important for the banking sector to follow certain safe procedure for the environment evaluation of the projects before providing them funds. There are some studies has been shown in the positive correlation between financial performance and environmental performance (Hamilton, 1995; Hart, 1995). Thus it will get more important for the banks and other financial institution in the context of environment performance whether to invest in companies or advise client to do so. The environmental management has to follow different rule formation for conservation of the resources like clean water act, toxic substance control act, clean air act. All these are environmental liability for banking institution in a recent (Bindhu.N.Nayak, 2008). Adopting all these principle will be beneficial for the banking sector and to the financial institution as to consumers and also their stake holder. On international scale various strategies has been adopt to sustain development. The multilateral financial and development institution and international consortium has been building up the standard of environment and strategies to estimate the investment projects. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the issue of the banking sustainability and how it can play a role for the sustainable development and growth for the economy, particularly in the India aspect. Methodology The most important and difficult part of the project is methodology. As in this project the research method which is been use to examine the importance of the green banking in economy to sustain the environment with the help of it. There are certain sources to collect a data for the project such as working papers, academic journals, and relevant books. The research has been done by getting secondary data from genuine source such as articles, journals which are issued by genuine newspaper agencies of a specific country. The project is based on the secondary data analysis as getting primary data is difficult because whatever the policies is taking consideration in bank is taken by the top management authorities and it is hard to have interaction with them in personally. Research Methodology Research is to be done to figure out the proper knowledge of the subject in a systematic way. It is analytical and hard working process to figure out the about the fact and theory. The term methodology refers the theory of how research should be done (Saunders, 2009). According to Welman and Kruger (2001) there are various techniques and methods in order to get effectively and scientifically correct information of the subject by applying objective method. Systematically Review The research of this subject is done on the basis of systematic way. And there is already material has been published by a genuine source on this particular subject. As it is said by Gronhaugh and Ghauri (2005) that the word systematic suggest research is based on logical relationship and not just belief. As method of research is consist of explanation of the data collection and the outcome of the facts from the study and finding the limitation of the subject. As Tranfield (2003) stated that traditional reviews are generally lack of information and some time the source of information was not authentic. Therefore, traditional review should be done very carefully and selective which include the evidence which is supported by the genuine authors summaries (Critical Appraisal Skill Programme, 2005). Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation of Methods: It is necessary, first to understand the difference between qualitative and quantitative investigation methods. Generating or using numerical data is called Quantitative data technique and generating of non numerical data is called qualitative technique. If both techniques are using to approach the data then its called mixed method (Saunders, 2009). According to Smith (1981) every method has its own weakness and strength. And as result may be differ as the use if the different technique and approaches by the researcher. Usually researcher goes for the qualitative approaches which consist of analysation of words through illustration and non- standardised frame work and comparison. As the project is an illustrative research and the objective is to understand the importance of the Green Banking in the India. Corbun and Strass (1990) has explained that the use of qualitative method is to understand the aspect of the subject. And it can be useful in understanding more about the subject which is already known. Quantitative methods can be use to gain insights approach to the issue which is sometime not possible to get the results from the quantitative method. Therefore, to describe key issues researcher prefer to use the quantitative methods especially in the case of transfusion service management which is not possible to get through from the quantitative method. The classical structure of literature reviewing according to the researcher is like; Study of basic level of banks and its importance in the economy. And research has been done on the Green Banking at international level. Then at what level Green banks are taking initiative in the Indian economy. Accumulation of the Green banking policy and more narrows down to the work to get the objective of research. To get the transparent literature review, researcher have to describe all the approaches which make to search the selected literature, key words, outline of the choice and data base (Tranfield, 2003). To analysis the literature several journals, books, articles and electronic base data were use. Source of Tool: To get the relevant material Ministry of Commerce and Industry, India site have been re-examine which is an official website of India. There are other search engine has been used such as Google scholar and University Library site has been used to gather the resources but university Library site is come to notice that there are very less journal are available regarding Green Banking. Analysis of Secondary Data: According to Haakim (2000) secondary data from different sources can also be combined if they have the same geographical basis, to form area based data sets to get the answer of the research question secondary data can be use as in getting the objectives which is aimed for the ample assembly. Genuineness of the facts is tested by the reputed database which is publicised by the authentic resource. The aim of this study is to analysis the secondary data methods while investigating the facts and do the international comparisons and to understand the potential outcome that why Green Banking is very important in the developing countries and how they are playing a crucial role in sustaining the development of the economy like India. Aim and objectives of research: The purpose is to learn what strategies leaders in emerging market growth have adopted to attract FDI and how financial services play major role. The purpose is to develop a model for both categories and test the model empirically to substantiate the hypotheses. What are the lessons that laggards can learn from these leaders? The study intends to show a path to the PIN countries and other markets that will emerge in next two decades. Therefore the objectives of this research are as follows: To illustrate the benefits and shortcomings of Foreign Direct Investments in developing countries like India and China. To understand the impact of FDI on gross domestic product of these emerging countries. To examine current situation these economies and analyse the future possibilities of growth. Limitations of the study: This is systematic review based study of the available literature in the area of Green Banking. Genuiness is the touchstone of Analysising the literature. Whereas, there are general and accurately presented material is available about Green Banking in European countries but very few literature was found related to the Green Banking in India. And even thought their not much significant data or literature has been get from the Google scholar and University Library or any other search engine regarding Green Banking in India. Whereas, sincere efforts has been done by the researchers to get the authentic data from the genuine source and the judgement has been done on the secondary the data. Research of the Credibility: There is certain research tool to examine the credibility like Generalisability, Reliability, and validity. Dochartaigh (2002) described it as,assessing the authority or reputation of the source. Validity: In the case of qualitative research the degree of validity is to be tested. To get the correct result, test of validity is important. Validity is concerned with whether the findings are really about what they appear to be about, is the relationship between two variables a causal relationship.(Saunders, 2009). This is a valid research because it is based on systematic data analysis from the genuine resource and on the basis of this research the question has been answered. Reliability: Reliability define by Joppe (2000) it is a consistent of a result which represent the accurate number of data is presented over the time and the study of result reproduced the same methodology then it can be said that research is reliable. If the research contains the systematic review of the available secondary data of same objective with a same topic and same results then the research of study is reliable (Golafshani, 2003). Triangulation: The term triangulation means that the collection of different data technique, which ensure about what you are thinking that they are telling you (Saunders, 2009). According to Mathison (1998) it is crucial for the methodological issue in quantitative and naturalistic approaches to establish valid proposition and get control on bias because alternative epistemology is incompatible with the scientific traditional techniques. But this research is based on the secondary data analysis not from the primary sources. So, this method is not applicable for this research. Consideration of Ethical: This research is completely based on the secondary data review and not on the primary collection method like interviewing or questionnaires etc. So, the approval of ethical and confidentiality is no use in the research. The collection of data is based on books, articles, journals and reports. The research material which has been used is properly referenced and checking the authenticity of the resource to avoid the plagiarism. Importance of green banking Until now, the business operation of financial and banking institution were not acknowledged towards the environmental concern. Generally, the environmentally degrading activities of banking sectors is like obstructing or getting in the way of business affair of their client. Nevertheless, it will be risk to their business if they were dealing with the environment. Although, there are indirect cost to the banks as they are not directly affected the by the environmental degradation. It is due to the firm environmental regulation which is enforced by the other countries authorities. In the case of failure, the industries have to face the consequence which leads banks to its closure. For example, in 1980 comprehensive environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). There was a huge loss for the bank in 1980s in U.S. The bank was directly responsible for the environmental pollution of their clients activities and made them to pay the remediation cost. Thats why banks in U.S are more concern about the environment while lending the fund to their clients. In European countries banks held directly responsible for any misdeed has been done by their clients. Therefore banks and other financial institution have to engage with their stakeholder on social and environmental policy. So that their clients investment can be evaluate. This would make clients to build up a proper management for social and environmental policy issue regarding investment. The green banking is important for both economy and the bank, by escaping from the risk which is involved in the financial sector. Legal Risk: there is a relevant environmental legislation risk for banks if they do not comply with it. More particularly, there is more lender liability risk for paying up the claims and the cost of damages for pollution causing to the asset or depraved. Banks can be helped by the environmental management by enhancing it image and reduce the cost and risk and taking advantage of revenue opportunity. Reputation Risk: As now there is more awareness about the safety of environment and banks may loosen up their reputation if they involve with the big project, which are indulging in the environmental destruction. Environmental management system have a few cases as in good result in cost saving and increase in the value of the bond (Heim, G et al, 2005). Sometimes it has lower risk, great environmental stewardship and increase in profit. Reputation risk is involved in both ethically and economically. By adopting the green banking strategies bank can deal with these risks. There are two components are involved in green banking strategies (1) innovative environmentally oriented financial products (2) managing risk environment (IFC, 2007). Banks have to make a proper arrangement for environmental management system. So that risk can be evaluate which involved in the investment project. The risk can be adopted by recommending the distinctive techniques and rates of interest. From high risk project banks can withdraw fund from it. Creating services and financial products is a second component of green bank which support the environmental benefit with commercial benefit. All these comes in bio-diversity conservation, investment in renewable projects energy, investment in technologies, energy efficiency, environmental investments in mutual funds and bonds (WBCSD, 1997). There should be protective polices for the liability guideline on development and environmental risk. The financial and banking institution should prepare a report of every project they invest and finance (Jeucken, 2001). For projects seeking finance they can have an environmental assessment. For each project bank can outcome with an environmental hazard management procedure and follow it. The big financial institution like Japan bank for international cooperation (JBIC) and International financial corporation (IFC) have consolidated with environmental management in their business strategies. All projects are taking consideration into terms of environmental impact in an account factors like, the substance scale and sector of the project, uncertainty and the degree of environmental impact proposed project site. Even World Banks are lending loan to the beneficiary country on the certain level of commitment that they adopt the environmental protection measures. Over time there is a change in the environmental norms to follow the agreement. And it is considerably bit costly to follow up the standard and environmental norms. If the economic benefits can be consider in the terms of productivity health care and insurance then the cost is not much higher than the benefit. In the study its confirms that 14 billion pound had been caused in the medical expenses and 200 million working days had been loss due to air pollution which resulting in losses in productivity to the European union (Stavros Dimas, 2005). Technologies which are environmental friendly practically decrease the financial burden and also building up the economic sense for the industries. Due to the more environmental awareness among the consumer in all over the world the pollutant industries were facing resistance by the consumer which often cause them massive boycott and close down of the industries and the cost is adding enormously. The concerns about environment are articulated into the international policy trade and act as a blockade for ESGs (Environmentally Sensitive Goods). So affirming modes of production and sustainable technologies are now not taking as a financial burden. Although, it providing high profits and new opportunities for the business. Green banking has neutralized the risk, save the cost and up brings the reputation of banks. So it serves both the commercial objective of the bank as well as its social responsibility. Green banking solves the problem faced by the environmental regulation and enforcements authorities related to size and location of the polluting unit. The authorities have practical limitations on enforcing environment standard on small-scale industries and also industries located in far off places. International initiative of green banking At international level there are many banks who have taken initiative to get their branch green. There is one bank name PNC Financial Group Inc which is based in Pittsburgh has certified as a green bank. PNC green bank does not stop with getting eco-friendly construction. They include there parent company business model in developing their products, marketing and giving training to their employee. PNC is one of the banks who have taken the green concept so seriously that it evolved the idea into the brand of the company. PNC has started its construction of getting green bank in 1998. They had selected 17 different sites for their location and make sure that it is easily accessible through transportation. Then they had planned to build their building accordingly to U.S Green Building Council (USGBC) and Leader in Energy and Environmental Design certification process. In 2000 the building was completed and it was the largest LEED green certified building in the world. Some of the new features have been included into the building structure like the lobby of the building is eco with a green roof. It was stated by Gary Saulson the director of the corporate real estate that you can walk into the building lobby on 90-degree humid day without any problem because there is a three- story water wall in the space which work as coolant radiant which maintain the inner temperature of the bu ilding. Because of this innovative method PNC has set a new standard of development. And it has been appreciated by the mayor of the city for setting up the standard of eco-friendly responsibility and quality development in the city. And in 2007 PNC Bank has secure 20th rank among the Best Green Company for America Award (Deb Stewart, 2008). Now PNC has more than 58 eco-friendly branches all across the state. And 41 branches has also obtained the Benchmark of Green Bank most of the branches has granted the LEED certification. As all of these branches has follow the eco-friendly process such as; Recycling: Near about 15 percent of furniture fabric and carpet is made of green material or recycle material for example Door and cabinetry are made of wheat board which process by the wheat product. Water and Energy Efficiency :- the usage of energy has been reduce by 50 percent because of the high-tech system installation in the building and maximum usage of the natural light and water usage was also reduce by 6200 gallon in year. Reduction in land waste: Wastage of construction material like steel, wood and cardboard is to be recycled. By doing this 150 ton per branch wastage has been reduce. Using of the pre-made panel for exterior has reduced the waste, while constructing the panels. To protect the ozone layer non- chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant are use for cooling the system (Deb Stewart, 2008). In 90s the United Nations environment programme has launched a program which is known as UNEP finance initiative (UNEPFI). Under this, near about 200 financial institutions of all around the world has taken the participation and signed the initiative statement to promote the environmental development (Jeucken, 2001). The main purpose is to merge the social and environmental dimension to the financial performance. According to the UNEPFI, the sustainable development is a basic thing for the business management. It supports for the elementary advance to the environmental management and offers reconciling environmental discussion into the asset management business operations and other decision of the banks (Earth Submit, 2002). In 1991 the IFCs environmental panel was established for receiving the environmental assessment project. ABN-Amro banks which is Netherlands based banks who has developed certain polices like reputation risk management (RRM) to recognise, manage the non- financia l and asses within their business strategies. Likely, the big international banks like Deutsche, HSBC, Standard Chartered and ABN-Amro banks has look and discuss at environmental problem under Kyoto protocol. Moreover, the government of Dutch has requested formally from the banks to achieve sustainable development. This agreement has been establish between banks and government in 1999. This environmental policy will improve the development of services and new financial products. The Rain Forest Action Network (RAN) and Earth (FOE) had challenged the industry with their campaign which highlighted the case in which commercial banks were bankrolling Disaster in 2000 in U.S. Bank Tract is a network which formed by the NGOs to promote the sustainable finance in the commercial sector in 2002. This coalition up comes with 6 principles which assisting in the protection of environment and justice by the bank. This is known as Collevecchio Declaration (Bibhu Prasad Nayak, 2008). These 6 principles are no- harm, commitments to sustainability, responsible sustainable market and transparency, accountability and governance. There are more than 200 institutions that signed up the declaration and asked the banks to integrate with these commitments into their business operation. The declaration states that Finance and Commerce has been at the centre of a historic detachment between the worlds natural resource base, production and consumption. As we reach the boundaries of ec ological boundaries of the ecological limit upon which all commerce relies, the financial sector should take its share of responsibility for reversing the effects this detachment has produced. To guideline the project banking institution have been constraint into common set of social and environmental policy for sustain the green finance. In Oct 2002 the group of small banks along with IFC had come with the proper general guideline and later in July 2003 they came up with a policy is known as Equator Principle. And other big commercial were also adopting this set of principles in their structure. And in July 2006 equator principle has been revised and updated. The used of the revised set of principle, the project coverage has been lowered by 10 million from 50 million dollar. Now 16 countries with 46 financial institutions were managing their business in more than 100 countries and they all have adopted the equator principle. The adoption of this principle in the business operation has become common standard for the project which integrated with social and environmental issue in business. (Bibhu Nayak, 2008; p10) The NGOs has received the activities of equator bank in a worldwide and it being proclaimed, when they came to know that it not commit to the equator principle. Sustainable Banking Award has been initiated by the Financial Times along with IFC in 2006. There are 151 financial institutions in which 104 institutions has made through to the final list of award in 2007. The ratio of bank apply was more than the previous year, it was about 100 percent more. The international initiative of banks operations are voluntary in nature and the basic thing is to up come of the common good for the enhancement of the ecosystem. In competitive market there is a short coming of a voluntary commitment. As an increase of the green money in the market, lender will stimulant to delay the social commitment and the commercial interest which will programme in the short run. If the green money is voluntary than it will be precondition demand for the green bank. According to the government policy the bank which is responsible for the breach of law of their clients will have to help in promoting green banking. Green Banking In India From last two decade, the growth rate of Indian development is very high. And this is because of the industrial sector that plays a curial role in the development of the India. However, controlling the environmental challenge has been occurred in the way of Indian industry which makes impact in their business i.e. emission of pollution by their clients. Although government of India is trying to solve this problem by adopting the environmental policies and comforting the industries to adopt this environmental technology. Fortuitously, India is a second fastest growing nation in the world in producing green house gases. Indias three main metropolitan cities like Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai are the worlds most busy and polluted cities. In India major polluted industries are paper and pulp, zinc steel and copper metallurgical industries, refine, tanneries, sugar, pesticides and insecticides, textile, fertilizers etc. The environmental management have to be taken care by the financial institution and banks, who are investing in the industries project. This can be done by improving the level of efficiency, quality of products and services. In this case banks and financial institution play an important role because these institutions are major source of finance to the industries. In India there are broadly two main categories for the environmental policies and regulation which is liability, law control and command regulation. The control and command regulation are ex an-te regulation which are assigned to prevent from the environmental polluting businesses. With the help of this policy lending institution will set up a specific standard for the industries, so that they have to follow the regulation and project will examine closely by the ministry of environment and forest authority and its up to these authority whether they give the permission or not. The liability law is like based on the analysis of past performance (ex post). In this impose will be made by the authorities on the industries by closing down or imposing fine on them etc. Although there is no such law in India which impose any fine on the bank; which are providing financial help to those client whose are responsible for creating damages to the environment. Once the legal regulation comes in th e frame work then the environmental standard will raise in India. And the industries which are responsible for polluting the environment will either have to shut down or have to invest money in the development equipment to meet the standards. And at international market industries will lose their competitiveness, which will directly affect the bank sector and economy of India. Thus it is crucial for the bank to protect them from getting into non- performing assets in coming days. Analysisation of these facts make banks to accept the concept of Green Banking. The institutions which are not capable to control the pollution now may be future polluters. And one day, the legislation will taken a strict decision against the polluters who are responsible for damaging the environment and may have to shut down their units. For e.g. in Delhi and Agra, almost 150 SSI units had to be shut down because of not following the standard. Now banks and financial institutions are taking consideration about these perspectives, if the industries were not performing the environmental standard. According to the pollution control status there are 17 different categories of institution where they are equal number of institution which are shut down or defaulted. When there is a shut down or a default of a project, bank has to face financial losses it is because of increase of the li ability and bad asset. Year Total Acceding^ Defaulting^^ Shut down 2001* 1551 1350 24 177 2002* 1551 1351 22 178 2003* 1551 13356 52 189 2004 2155 1877 53 225 2005 2455 1909 168 265 2006 2678 2044 297 335 Note: ^Competent to agree with the Standards, ^^ Not able to agree Standards. Source: * Annual Report 2005-2006 LOk Sabha ; Govt. Of India, Ministry of Forest and Environment; (sourced from www.indiastat.com) Now-a-days, awareness is spreading among the public regarding environmental pollution. And people are taking strict action against those industri
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Origin of the Ifugao Tribe The name of the chosen culture is Ifugao. The origin of the Ifugao comes from the term Ipugo, which means from the hill. According to their mythology, their name is derived from Ipugo which refers to the rice grain given to them by their God, Matungulan. Also, others say that the name comes from the word I-pugaw which loosely translates to inhabitants of the earth. Neighboring people refer to the Ifugao people as Kiangianl. Today, the people who inhabit this province refer to themselves as the Ifugao, although the area contains people who are not. The Ifugao culture inhabits an area of roughly 750 to 970 square miles in northern Luzon, which is located in the Philippines. The culture resides in the most rugged and mountainous parts of the Philippines, which is high in the Gran Cordillera Central in northern Luzon. The Gran Cordillera Central of Northern Luzon is consumed with a wide variety of natural areas. According to Fowler, The Gran Cordillera Central of Northern Luzon is a jumbled mass of lofty peaks and plummeting ravines, of small fecund valleys cleaved by rainfed, boulder-strewn rivers, and of silent, mist-shrouded, moss-veiled forests wherein orchids in their deathlike beauty unfold like torpid butterflies. The mountainous peaks rise from 1,000 to 5,000 meters and are drained by the waters of the Magat River. According to Siangho, Their neighbors to the north are the Bontco; to the east Gaddang; to the west Kankanay and Ibaloy; and to the south the Ikalaham and Iwak. It is believed the Ifugao were likely inhabitants of the nearby fertile plains, which is greatly opposite of their current dwelling. It is also believed that they were driven out of these plains by Malaysians because of their superior weapons. This is why they currently reside in the mountain side. The Republic of the Philippines is an archipelago of approximately 7,000 islands. The first people arrived about 100,000 years ago. These individuals were hunters and gatherers who survived off of the lands basic resources. Thousands of years later, people arrived from Asia and brought with them agricultural skills and social structure. From this cross-cultural intermingling, a culture was created and the Philippines was born. The language name of the Ifugao people is Ifugao. The language family proceeds like this: Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon South-Central, Cordilleran Central, Cordilleran Nuclear, and then Cordilleran Ifugao. Therefore, the language family of the Ifugao language is Malayo-Polynesian. There are Four divergent dialects of the Ifugao language: Amganad, Batad, Mayoyao, Tuwali, each with distinct varieties: Amganad: Burnay Ifugao, Banaue Ifugao; Batad: Ayangan Ifugao, Batad Ifugao, Ducligan Ifugao; Tuwali: Apao Ifugao, Hungduan Ifugao, and Lagawe Ifugao. As stated by The Ifugao native people, The Ifugao have a language that changes from village to village. Dialect and change of pronunciation can make it a real challenge to maintain a conversation between neighboring villagers. However, an official language dictionary has been produced. Population within Ifugao society in the twentieth century has varied anywhere from 60,000 to over 100,000. According to Malone, Population density in some areas approaches 400 per square mile. The only architectural structures noted for this group of people are the houses in which they reside and their extensive rice patties that extend from halfway up the mountain side all the way down to the bottom of the valley. The Ifugao people live in hamlets. These are like tiny communities that are located alongside the mountain near an owners rice patty. There are approximately 8 to 12 houses per hamlet. There are also buildings for the unmarried, which is discussed later in this assignment. The houses of the Ifugao people are very small. The typical household consists of the nuclear family. A nuclear family is a family consisting of only a mother, father and their children. Once a child becomes a teenager and he or she is old enough to take care of his or herself, they go in live in either boy or girl homes. Typically the Ifugao house sits on four sturdy posts, with no windows. According to Fowler, Inside there is an open earth and stone fireplace for cooking and floor mats for sleeping and sitting. Family paraphernalia, such as baskets, bowls, clothing, skills (human and animal), and magic items, are hung from the walls or stacked on carved shelves. Although Ifugao houses vary little from this basic configuration, houses of nobility often feature differences, such as massive Hagabi lounging benches, decorated attic beams, kingposts and doorjambs carved with human effigies, and ornate exterior frezies portraying pigs, carabao and other animals. The adults and their smaller children (ones who cannot take care of themselves) live together while children who can maintain their own lifestyle live in different houses. When the teenagers reach the age where they become interested in the opposite sex, the male teenagers leave their house during the day to meet females in other houses. From this intermingling, couples eventually form. Soon after a girl becomes pregnant, the couple will wed. After marriage, the couple will either build their own home, live in a home of someone who has died without kids, or live in a home left by one of their parents. After they settle in to their house, it is the moms duty to take care of the child and the dads duty to provide for the family. People in the Ifugao culture live a very basic lifestyle to make a living. The usual lifestyle consists of agriculture and hunting, with anthropologists characterizing the adaptive strategy as agriculturists. According to Malone, Ifugao subsidence is derived principally from agriculture (84 percent) with an additional ten percent derived from the raising of aquatic fauna, such as minnows and snails, in flooded rice fields. The remaining six percent of subsistence involve fishing (fish, eels, frogs, snails and water clams); hunting (deer, wild buffalo, wild pigs, civet cats, wild cat, python, iguana, cobra, and fruitbat); and gathering of insects (locusts, crickets, and ants) as well as large variety of wild plants. As we can see, the main duties are tending to the rice patties. The men are usually the ones that participate in the hunting and fishing. When the men hunt after wild deer and pig, they usually use hunting dogs to assist them. The dogs are not raised to eventually eat (lik e some nearby cultures); the Ifugao people respect and admire dogs. The Ifugao political system is better characterized as a sociopolitical organization. According to the article, Ifugao Sociopolitical Organization, Traditionally, social differentiation has been based on wealth, measured in terms of rice land, water buffalo and slaves. The wealthy aristocrats are known as kadangyan. The possession of hagabi, a large hardwood bench, occurs their status symbolically. The Ifugao have little by way of a formal political system; there are no chiefs or councils. There are, however, approximately 150 districts (himputonaan ), each comprised of several hamlets; in the center of each district is a defining ritual rice field (putonaan ), the owner (tomona ) of which makes all agricultural decisions for the district. Government is poorly established among the Ifugaos. According to Malone, The functions of government are (or were) accomplished by the operation of collective kinship obligations, including the threat of blood feud, together with common understanding of the adat or custom law given the people by ancestor heroes, in particular the inviolability of personal and property rights. Men earn respect according to their rice patties. The bigger their patty is, the higher the status they have in the community. Also, within the Ifugao community, there is a rice chief. The rice chief is one of the leading priests and the people respect him for religious authority, but he does not have ultimate authority over the Ifugao people. For the most part, people are on their own when it comes to government control. According to Malone, Each sibling group is the center of an exogamous, bilateral kindred.: Essentially, this is descent traced and kinship groups assigned through both male and female lines with marriages being outbred instead of inbred relationships between families. Basically, people dont marry within their family, but outside of it. The adults and small children all live together. When the child comes of age, which is basically a teenager, they move out of their parents house and live on their own in a second house with other kids their age of the same sex. When the men begin to search for wives, they leave their houses during the day and the women stay in their homes to greet and welcome men. They start in a very cool and calm atmosphere, such as jokes and casual talk, but eventually relationships form. After a girl becomes pregnant, they will wed. At this point the couple will either build their house or inhabit a house left by their parents or someone who has passed away without children. When they are settled in, the mothers duty is to care for the child while the father hunts for food for the family. Marriage within the Ifugao culture is quite simple. The normal form of marriage in the Ifugao society is monogamy. Monogamy is being married to only one person at a time. Although monogamy is widely practiced, polygyny is practiced occasionally by the wealthy. Even thought the definition of polygyny is that either male or female may have multiple spouses, it is mainly the males that have multiple wives. In these situations, the first wife has higher authority and status than her co-wives. According to Malone, Marriages are alliances between kindreds. First cousin marriages are forbidden in practice and theory, but marriages to more distant cousins can take place. These marriages can take place with a payment of fines in livestock. The men are able to choose their wives within this culture. There are no established or set marriages for the Ifugao people. When the men are interested in marriage, they begin meeting other women in their society. When they begin their relationship, it is a very casual environment. Eventually it become serious, and after the woman is pregnant, the man and wife get married. They will then move into their own place together to begin their family. This seems pretty similar to the American marriage system on the fact that we look for and choose our own mate. Some people get married before they are pregnant while others get pregnant before they are married (although some people may never marry). I think this is definitely a culture I could be a part of, in the sake of their marriage system that is. Ifugao society is much separated. Men and women live apart unless they are married and/or brother and sister, but even at a certain age of childhood; they go and live on their own, away from their parents. Men are the ones who hold political power, or lack thereof, in the Ifugao culture. Usually, the only powerful people in this society are men who are respected because of their wealth. The division of labor is set between the genders as well. Since this a very simplistic culture, the women tend to the children and house work while the men tend to the fields of rice and hunting food for the family. I would call it a classic, nomadic style of life. Another note that women are not as powerful or highly touted as men is the fact that, in the case that polygyny does exist, it is with multiple wives and usually not multiple husbands. This form of marriage is very rare and only among the elite and rich people in the culture. For me, I wouldnt like to live within this culture. I think it is good for men and women to mix and mingle within the workplace, home, and political power. Men and women bring different ideas and ways of life to the table, and I think a successful culture allows men and women to intermingle freely. Therefore, I would not want to live in the Ifugao society. Religion is an essential part of the Ifugao culture and is significant in every phase of life. Their religion provides a means by with the unknown can be approached and understood. Ifugao religion is a very complex structure based on ancestor worship, animism, and magical power. According to Fowler The Ifugao pantheon consists of innumerable spiritual entities that represent natural elements, forces and phenomena in addition to ancestral and metaphysical beings. The trust and confidence that the Ifugao have in these beings allow them to face what is often a complex and frightening world with a great deal of confidence and understanding. They believe that the gods and other beings are approachable and can be influenced by the proper rites and behavior to intercede on behalf of an individual or the entire community. Generally the gods are viewed as generous and benign beings who enjoy feasting, drinking wine and chewing betel nut, as do the Ifugao themselves. However, the gods are quic k to anger and if ignored or treated badly can quickly become ill-tempered, demanding tyrants capable of causing misfortune and injury. The Ifugao people have created ceremonies to honor and respect their deities, although some are rarely acknowledged or called upon. Others, who control daily life, such as agriculture and health, are constantly worshipped and called upon. The greatest importances to the Ifugao are rice or agricultural deities which have the power to ensure bountiful crops and actually increase the amount of rice already in storage. Although the Ifugao have no knowledge in writing, they were capable of creating a literature that matches with some of the countrys finest in epic and folk tale. Their literature is passed orally. Their riddles serve to entertain the group as well as educate the young. One such example of an Ifugao riddle is, according to Siangio: Dapa-om ke nan balena ya mubuttikan nan kumbale. This translates to: Touch the house and the owner runs about. The answer is spider. When the Ifugao gather together, they use proverbs to give advice to the young. These proverbs are used to stress points. The ones who have gone to formal school begin their lectures before large meetings or gatherings with proverbs. Here are a few Ifugao proverbs according to Sianghio: Hay mahlu ya adi maagangan :: The industrious will never go hungry. Hay uya-uy di puntupong hi kinadangyan di ohan tago. :: The feast is the yardstick of a persons wealth. Hay itanum mo, ya hidiyeh aniyom :: What you have planted is what you will reap. Ifugao myths usually are about hero ancestors, gods and other supernatural beings. They story lines usually have these heroes facing problems that they are currently facing. This allows the Ifugao people to provide hope and comfort to their homes. When these stories are recited, they are usually in barked-out, terse phrases followed by the tulud, which means pushing. The tulud aims to bring the magical powers that stand behind the myth. At the end, the clincher kalidi is chanted and the narrarator enumerates the benefits which should be obtained from the myth. The myths are usually concluded with the phrase, because thou art being mythed. They have myths that cover common cultural stories such as: creation of the world, creation of man, great battles and epic struggles. They also have stories that cover other worldly known events, such as the great flood or Noahs Arc to the Bible. According to Sianghio, Other Ifugao legends that have been recorded include, The Legend of the Ambuwaya Lake; The Origin of the Pitpit or The Bird of Omen; Why the Dead Come Back no More; and How Lagawe Got Its Name. Other such important tales are the magical stories, called abuwab. These tales are believed to possess mystical powers. According to Siangho, Examples are the poho-phod and chiloh tales, which are usually told in death and sickness rituals. The abuwab is usually about the legendary husband and wife, Bugan and Wigan. Also, Siangho says, The Ifugao epics are chanted romances telling of the origins of the people, the life and adventure of the Ifugao heroes, the valor of men and the beauty of women, as well as ancient customs and traditions.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Comedy in A Midsummer Night's Dream "why do they run away? This is a knavery of them to make me afeard."(3.1.99) This is a quote from the Shakespearean play "A Midsummer Night's Dream." In this quote, the speaker, Bottom, is wondering why everyone is afraid of him. He doesn't realize that as a practical joke, a trickster Puck, has put an ass head on his shoulders. This makes all of his companions afraid of him so that they run away. This is an example of the comedy involved in this play. This essay will show you that A Midsummer Night's Dream is a play that is mainly composed of comedy. The funniest part of this play seems to be when Puck, the trickster, keeps mixing up the people who he is assigned to put the love juice on. Even when he did put the love juice into the right people's eyes, they still fell in love with the wrong people sometimes. The first example of this mistake of Puck's is where he puts the love juice in Lysander's eyes, mistaking him for Demetrius. Oberon tells Puck to put the love juice in the eyes of an Athenian man, Demetrius, and to make sure that the first thing he sees after this is the woman whom he hates, but who loves him so much, Helena. Puck ends up finding Lysander and Hermia, lovers, sleeping on the forest floor. He puts the love juice in Lysander's eyes and leaves. Then along come Helena and Demetrius to this spot. They are still arguing and Demetrius leaves her with the sleeping Lysander and Hermia. Helena notices them there and tries to wake Lysander. Lysander wakes and the first thing he sees is Helena. "And run through fire for thy sweat sake. Transparent Helena! Nature shows art, That through thy bosom makes me see thy heart."(2.2.103). This is what Demetrius says to Helena when he sees her. He has fallen in love with her. This is where the comedy of this love mix up begins. Now Helena is confused and thinks that Lysander is playing a trick on her so she runs away. This is a most particularly funny part of the play and these mix ups with whom loves who seem to be the funniest pieces of the play. Another funny section in this play is where Puck puts an ass head on the shoulders of Bottom.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Myofascial Release (MFR) is defined as a hands-on soft tissue stretching technique that involves manipulating the muscles and the fascial covering.1 MFR is performed by a trained professional who applies a gentle yet progressive stretch where-by the amount of time for which the technique is applied, the direction in which the stretch is applied, and the force with which it is applied are all dependent upon the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s physical response to the treatment.2,3 Ultimately, it is what the therapist feels, the end-feel, that guides the treatment through a series of stretches and manipulations attempting to reach maximum relaxation of tight tissues.2 Due to muscles and fascia being interconnected throughout the entire body, MFR is thought to be a whole body treatment.2 This theory explains why, often times, a therapist might treat an unaffected area and provide relief in the area of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s complaint.2 Furthermore, this also explains why a treatment session to one area may cause symptoms to surface in an unrelated area.2 For these reasons, it is very important for therapists to set appropriate expectations regarding the treatment and the effects thereof.2 Patient response is very individualized.2 Thus, Ã¢â¬Å"MFR is performed with a patient, not to a patient.Ã¢â¬ 2 Myofascial release requires active participation of the patient; however, not by actively contracting muscles nor by performing certain movements.2 The active participation is defined, more appropriately, as the patient being the leader by focusing on the sensations from his/her body while lying still on the table and allowing his/her body to lead the therapistÃ¢â¬â¢s therapy session.2 The patient must not inhibit movement, allowing his/her body to move freely.2 Only the... ...search on this topic, three of the four members of the group had a very open-minded approach to therapy believing that holistic care has a definite place in patient care. One member of the group; however, had very little experience and very little exposure to holistic treatments. After completing the research on this topic, the group shared a common belief that myofascial release and it underlying techniques make sense clinically and; therefore, the four members of this group will have no problem Ã¢â¬Å"sellingÃ¢â¬ MFR and its benefits to a potential patient. Because of this research and learning experience, all four members gained a stronger understanding of the mind-body connection and; thus, feel even more confidence in finding a place for holistic treatments, such as myofascial release to treat the overall well being of the patient including the mind, body and spirit.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Prime Directive Response When dealing with foreign sentient species, it is crucial to maintain what is know as a prime directive. This is the notion that a species may explore distant planets, but must take certain precautions when dealing with other sentient species to prevent any change in their progression. In the novel Speaker for the Dead, the citizens of Lusitania go to great lengths to preserve their prime directive, but the indigenous species appear to benefit from their encounters with these humans, and begin to realize it themselves.The natives of the planet Lusitania, known to the humans as Ã¢â¬Å"piggiesÃ¢â¬ , have learned much from the humans in the brief time that they have lived together. The human languages, Stark and Portuguese, were necessary in order to be able to communicate with the piggies, but the piggies seem to be using it for more than just communication. Pages 142-143 show that the piggies can transition between Stark and portuguese as a sort of language game that they play with the humans.The piggies already know four different languages, and the addition of two more can help their society express themselves in more ways. Besides language, the mere fact of making contact with another sentient species shows the natives that they are not alone in the universe and that they may not be the strongest or the smartest. If they realize this, it may help them to unite as a planet-wide species faster than they normally would have without outside contact. By seeing that the humans are more technologically advanced, the piggies may also focus more on striving to create new technologies themselves.History has shown us that most inventions happen because they are necessary, and the addition of humans on Lusitania may increase the necessity of technological progression. At this point, the piggies are far from being capable of first contact and therefore cannot be contaminated by human society due to the Prime Directive. Their culture seems backwa rds to the humans, but that does not justify any interference, even if it would potentially benefit the piggies. The two species are simply too far apart in progression to be able to successfully interact with each other.The fact that two humans have already been killed, and brutally so (at least in human standards), reinforces this idea. The piggies' culture is still hindered by radical traditions that the humans do not understand and most likely never will. By even being around the piggies, the humans are inserting themselves into the piggies' rituals and culture. The piggies may eventually realize that their culture is backwards and may abandon such rituals earlier than they would have. Or perhaps, they may even adapt their culture to human standards.With this being said, it seems apparent that even minimal contact between the two species is having a subtle but profound effect on both societies. The cultural difference of the piggies is too vast to allow interactions with the hum ans if the Prime Directive is to be maintained. Already, as is seen on pages 144-145, one of the natives realized that the humans are using metals as a resource to accomplish greater tasks, such as flight. It may have taken decades for the piggies to have discovered metal as a useful resource on their own. The humans should have gone to far greater lengths to preserve the prime directive.No resource that is not ready available or attainable should even be encountered by the natives until they discover it for themselves. The notion of a prime directive may seem considerate towards other species, but in the case of the piggies it appears to be almost impossible. The attempts to learn more about the natives of Lusitania without contaminating their culture has resulted in failure after failure. Even if the humans were to leave immediately, the piggies have still learned permanent information that they would not have even theorized for years.Although it seems as though the prime directiv e has been compromised between the humans and piggies, the latter seems to still benefit greatly from the knowledge. They've learned new languages, discovered that traveling to distant planets is possible, and are now even considering searching for new materials to create better technology. Perhaps the humans should have taken more care to prevent technological contamination, but the colonization of Lusitania by humans has led to an inevitable progression of the native culture.