Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Customer Services at Tesco Essay

I am doing a project based on Customer Services for Tesco. I am doing research into the company and with my findings I am going to provide recommendations to improve Customer Services at Tesco. The areas that I am going to be covering are: * What Customer Services does there company provide. * How do they measure Customer Satisfaction. * How do you know that their customers are happy. * What legislation affects their customers at Tesco. * How do they segment their target market. And * What is their Customer profile. From the above I will provide recommendations for improvements. Theory Of Customer Services. Customer Services is the overall activity of identifying and satisfying customer needs. â€Å"Most people entering a shop or contacting a firm by letter or telephone, have suggested that by this action they have a need†1 I think that this suggestion is true because people go to the shop and need somewhere to park and what kind of parking they need, if they need to use the toilet facilities, also just going into the shop buying the products. The customer must be treated and advised accordingly, and the advice that they are given must be accurate. â€Å"After sales service is an essential element of customer service in any type of organisation, it may cover faulty goods, refunds, exchange of goods, complaints about goods, service or hygiene.†2 Many customers go back to the store in which they have received something and have a query about the service or product in which they have received. Sometimes it may be food things but other times its not. A lot of good will be refunded or goods exchange will take place. It requires a salesperson to be aware of the consumer’s charter and the relevant laws on the sale of goods trade descriptions. Many shops/stores have a â€Å"customer service department† to deal with queries which certain people might have. Measuring Customer Satisfaction. It is important for Tesco to measure how satisfied their customers are so that if they need to they can make improvements to products or the service in which they provide. The ways in which Tesco measure Customer Satisfaction is by: * Sending out questionnaires to customers through post or email. This shows if Tesco need to make any improvements to their service or any of their products. * The Tesco Loyalty card- This is provided by Tesco and it has the customer’s details. Tesco can use this to see how often the customer shops there and to see if there are any product/products in particular that they buy. If they see that that customer has not shopped in Tesco for a few months they might post them some product vouchers (e.g. money off coupons) to bring that customer back to the store. If Tesco do this it makes the customer see that Tesco’s are willing to help the customer in all sorts of ways to bring there custom back. This helps Tesco measure the satisfaction of individual customers. * They record some of their calls that are made by customers for training purposes. * On the spot questions from staff. * Observation (e.g. mystery shoppers.) * Customer panels or interviews. * Customer comments on the web site or in store. From this they can analyse the sales performance e.g. sales levels, number of customers, records of products brought and from the loyalty card records. All of this is part of market research and they get the feed back from their customers. What Customer Services Tesco Provides From my findings at Tesco I have found out the following: Products: Most of the products that are sold at Tesco are of good quality (apart from the food that looks untidy on the shelves, and that it looks like it has been thrown in.) I think that most of the products are reasonably priced. No complaints have been made from customers and from myself asking a few customers their thoughts on the prices. The products are safe to use, on the packaging they give detail about what the product contains and on some products they suggest how to use/cook the food product. Most of the goods are packaged safely but some of the goods may have fallen on the floor and may have been spilt open, which some people/some staff then just pick up and put it back on the shelf. This does not good for Tesco as a whole. Some of the prices on the shelves are covered up by other product prices. The sale signs cover up the original prices so you cannot really see if it is an actual sale. This is like it for some of the products in the store. These are some of my findings as an example to what I have wrote above: * The meat that was displayed looked like it had been thrown in. * All the reduced things looked like they had been hidden away in the Bacon, Fresh pasta and ready meals section. * Salad in meat section (moved.) Staff: I think that the people that I saw that where working in the Tesco in Hertford where correctly dressed and it was suitable. You could clearly see whole was higher than others (meaning the managers compared to the till staff.) I think that most of the staff are helpful but some of them may talk rudely to you if you ask where something is. On my visit I had this happen to me. The staffs that have been working in the store for quite a while know where certain products are in the shop so if you were to ask they would be able to point you in the right direction or even take you there their self. They also know about the deals etc that are going on in the store at that moment in time which is also good because if you go to the till and there is a deal on a precise product you have brought they will say â€Å"did you know its by one get 2nd half price† (made up example) Premises: Some of the store is not safe e.g. * Trolley in way. * There’s a pillar in the middle of the isle (obstruction to customers) what did not help the matter was the fact that Tesco food trolleys (that they stacked the shelves with) was in the way too. * Slippery floor with no sign to say so. On the ceiling they have posters hanging off to show where each section of the store is (e.g. fruit and veg.) From my visit I saw cleaners cleaning whilst people where shopping, so they do keep clean but then again the floors are left wet and maybe slippery and the cleaners may get in the way of the customers. In the Tesco store they did have disabled parking and a toilet for disabled people and also trolleys for disabled people. The layout of the premises was good and easy. I think that they keep it easy and simple so that the customers can find the products that they want without fail. The facilities that I saw that where provided for the customers where the toilets/baby and changing rooms, the photo-boof and the pay phone. Delivery: There was no information that I could see in the store about delivery but I did find the following information on the Tesco website ( â€Å"Delivery will be made to the address specified by you on the completed order form. We will deliver your order to the main entrance of the delivery address. At your request, our driver may carry your order into the delivery address, for example, to a particular floor in an apartment block or into your kitchen but only if: a. the driver has your permission and b. our driver believes that it is safe and practical to do as you request. We always reserve the right to deliver only to the main entrance of the delivery address. Please note that we deliver goods only to specified regions within the United Kingdom. To check that the online Grocery service delivers to your area, please enter your postcode at Delivery times will be agreed with you at the time of placing your order.† Payment: The different ways of paying at Tesco are: 1. Cash 2. Credit/debit card. 3. Cheque Field Research Findings. Notes Based On Tesco In Hertford I carried out some field research at a Tesco near me. Here are my findings:- * Bigish car park but not big enough. Plenty of disabled parking but people not disabled parking in them spots. Same with parents and child parking. * Vegetables nicely laid out. * Prices cover up over prices. * Isles labelled * Trolley in way. * Lots of leaflets. * Salad in meat section (moved.) * The meat that was displayed looked like it had been thrown in. * All the reduced things looked like they had been hidden away in the Bacon, Fresh pasta and ready meals section. * There’s a hot deli selling hot chicken of different sorts. * Certain isles crowded more than others. Some isles empty. * There’s a pillar in the middle of the isle (obstruction to customers) what did not help the matter was the fact that Tesco food trolleys (that they stacked the shelves with) was in the way too. * Slippery floor with no sign to say so. * Car equipment at the end of food isle. * Empty cardboard boxes on the shelves. * Posters not really explaining what’s on each isle. * About 10:45 am on Tuesday morning just the old people doing shopping and a few moms with toddlers or babies. * Christmas things already displayed on shelves. * Fresh mean, raw meat, diary products in separate counters but with the diary products they are all bundled into one counter. * Ticket service for meat and diary products. * Tesco brands on bottom shelves. * Labels over CD’s covering up the names of the CD’s (e.g. â€Å"Security protected†) * The books on the shelves in a mess (the ones on bottom shelf) but the ones nearer the top look in order. * Cat and dog food etc clearly laid out. * Cleaning things all nicely laid out. * Tablets, shampoo, deodorant etc all down one isle. * Baby things all down one side of the isle. * With the frozen food all the weight watchers items in one compartment. * Ice cream section is pretty empty. * Vegetarian food all in one section. * Halloween things all in one section. * Buy one get one free posters hung from the ceiling. * Loads of Christmas things displayed more than the Halloween things. * Community news posters. * Photo vision right in the corner of the shop near the tills. * Batteries all displayed together. * Champagne And Sparkling drinks are all together. * Spirits, Liqueurs, Malts etc all separated into different sections but with the name of what consists in that section. * There is a time limit in which to buy alcohol (which it 8am until 10:55 pm) * Promotional things displayed on every section of the shop (meaning top of every isle) * I saw 3 fire exits. * Not many seats at the end of the till for the customers. * There was one customer pay phone. * There was a magazine section and a section for the different newspapers. * There where toilets for the men, disabled, baby changing and for the girls. * There’s a small customer services desk. * 1 Cash machine * Parking clearly labelled Legislation Acts for Tesco. The Consumer Protection Act is a consolidation of consumer protection legislation. Parts III and IV of the Act are the former Consumer Products Warranties Act and Unsolicited Goods and Credit Cards Act. Part II of the Act offers protection to Saskatchewan consumers from unfair and unscrupulous marketplace practices. The Act also sets out consumer responsibilities, such as attempting to resolve a dispute with a supplier before taking further action. * Unfair practices * Remedies * Warranties * Unsolicited goods and credit cards * Consolidation of The Consumer Protection Act * Consumer Protection Branch Food Safety Act Under the Food Safety Act 1990, you: * Must not sell (or keep for sale) food that is unfit for people to eat. * must not sell food that isn’t what the customer is entitled to expect, in terms of content or quality * must not cause food to be dangerous to health * must not describe or present food in a way that is false or misleading It’s important to be able to demonstrate the positive steps taken by your business to ensure good food hygiene. If you were prosecuted under the Food Safety Act 1990, you would need to convince the court that you had taken all reasonable steps to avoid the offence you had been accused of . Health and safety regulations of 1974 Act It states that all employers have a responsibility to ensure health and safety requirements of their employees. All companies regardless of their size must have a written safety policy ensuring implementation of Health and Safety Act and indulge themselves in carrying out the risk assessment on all their activities. Risk Assessment included: * à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Noise Assessments under Noise at Work Regulations. * à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Control of Substances harmful to health and safety regulations. * à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Display Screen Equipment Regulations. * à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Workplace Welfare and health safety requirements. * à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations. * à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Manual Handling Regulations. Trade Description Act. This Act has offered protection to consumers and legitimate traders for over three decades. It is an extremely versatile piece of legislation which has been used to tackle all manner of different forms of unfair trading eg.: * car clocking * misdescribed holidays * distribution of counterfeit goods The Act makes it an offence to: * Apply a false or misleading description to goods (e.g. by writing it down, making a verbal statement or by turning back a car’s odometer); or * Supply or offer to supply goods to which a false or misleading trade description is applied. A person exposing goods for supply (e.g. in a shop) or having them in his possession for supply (e.g. in a storeroom) is deemed to offer to supply them for the purposes of the Act. These offences are strict liability offences i.e. it is possible for a trader to commit an offence without intending to do so. Recommendations From studying my company Tesco I have got to know the business quite well. From this I have provided the following recommendations: Disabled People: Disabled people are not able to reach the high shelves which makes things difficult for them, because the majority of the products are high on the shelves. I would recommend that there should be a sign for disabled people to go to get staff help. Also with disabled people there are not many trolleys and the trolleys could be hard to use for them, I think that maybe they should lower the trolleys so that life would be made easier for the disabled people. Staff: I think that there should be more staff to give a helping hand to there customers. Most of the staff are on tills, packing shelves or on the go to do something else and it seems that some of the staff have no time to actually help the customers with there queries. The customer services help desk is meant to be there to help but there was one case where my dad had a complaint and one of the staff members was trying to tell my dad that he was actually in the wrong but actually he was in the right. This was soon resolved when I higher member of staff came to help sort out the situation. Also with the staff I think that they should check that the food is in the right place and not on the floor or damaged etc. Signs: The signs that are hung from the ceiling don’t really explain what are on each isle. On one isle it says pasta but in that same isle it has biscuits etc. I would recommend that the signs should be a lot clearer to help customers find there way around the shop then maybe staff would not have customers coming up to them asking where things are. Isles: A suggestion that I would make about the isle is that they do get really crowded, so if Tesco know that that certain isle is popular then maybe they should widen the isle. Also they should not put a pillar in the middle of an isle because it is an obstruction to customers and even more so little kids who may be running around and might run into it because there might be a slippery floor etc. This would make Tesco a more safer environment.    1 Taken from Advanced Business Osborne Books. 2 Taken from Advanced Business Osborne Books

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Nice Guys Always Finish Last

Nice guys is a term in the popular culture and general public discourse describing a male, young or adult, with friendly yet unassertive personality traits in the context of a relationship with a woman. Nice guy is said to be who puts their interest aside and out others first, avoids confrontation, does favors, gives emotional support, tried to stay out of trouble and generally be nice towards women. Although many people would agree with the generalization of â€Å"nice guys always finish last† I would disagree and side with nice guys because bad guys may get the girls and sleep around but in the end of the day they end up with the nice guy. There is a discrepancy between preference and the actual action of women in choices in men. They say that they want â€Å"nice guys† but in reality, they go for â€Å"bad boys† or â€Å"jerks† in the end. Stephan Desrochers claims, in a 1995 article in the journal Sex Roles, that many â€Å"sensitive† men, based on personal experience, do not believe women actually want â€Å"nice guys†. Desrochers, 1995). And Urbaniak & Kilmann write that, â€Å"Although women often portray themselves as wanting to date kind, sensitive, and emotionally expressive men, the nice guy stereotype contends that, when actually presented with a choice between such a ‘nice guy' and an unkind, insensitive, emotionally-c losed, ‘macho man' or ‘jerk,' they invariably reject the nice guy in favor of his ‘so-called' macho competitor. † (Urbaniak & Kilmann, 2003). They all both say that what they want and what they actually do is totally different. Women say they want â€Å"nice guys† but they want nice guys to be attractive, well built but those guys are either taken or jerks. Then they go for the jerks, who are attractive and challenge themselves to make them to become nice guys but that rarely happens. Nice guys do not always finish last. The difference is how one defines or take word â€Å"last† as. Bad boys or jerks do always get the girls because they know the game and most of them are attractive in different ways but when one looks at long-term, many can see that women tend to choose nice guys. Herold and Milhausen claim that â€Å"while ‘nice guys' may not be competitive in terms of numbers of sexual partners, they tend to be more successful with respect to longer-term, committed relationships. † (Herold & Milhausen, 1999). No women wants to be treated badly or be used and that what bad boys or jerks do. Thats is why they prefer nice guys and be will to go out on second date or go in a relationship with them. McDaniel constructed vignettes of dates with a stereotypical â€Å"nice guy† vs. a stereotypical â€Å"fun/sexy guy,† and attempted to make them both sound positive. Participants reported a greater likelihood of wanting a second date with the â€Å"nice guy† rather than with the â€Å"fun/sexy guy. † (McDaniel, 2005). People may think that nice guys finish last but for to them the â€Å"last† is the goal for the women. The women may take a detour but most of them reach the goal to the nice guy. It is like the story of the rabbit and the tortoise, the rabbit is the jerk and tortoise the nice guy. My best friend is a bad boy who gets all the girls he wants and I was always the nice guy. He always told me to be like him but I could not and never be someone who I am not and comfortable with. I always thought that generalization was true until recently but not anymore. It took me three years but I am finally in a relationship and I am happy. From past to present, the women's preference has not changed and that means something. Women do and always will desire nice guys because they care and think about them. Thats is what women is looking for at the end of the day. Nice guys does not finish, they finish first.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Security Police and Social Media Use for Organization Research Paper

Security Police and Social Media Use for Organization - Research Paper Example In most occasions, people using social media tend to give their view concerning issues affecting their lives and this includes their views on various products and services offered by different organizations. Criticism and appraisals are mainly conveyed by persons using social media (Efraim, Narasimha and Ting-Peng 206). It is also evident that organizations use social media to advertise their products and services. Since social media acts as a platform through which people share and express ideas with their friends, once organizations advertise through such sites, users of the site socially spread information about the company to friends in a rapid manner (Efraim, Narasimha and Ting-Peng 206). However, as organizations are benefiting from collaboration with social media in carrying out their businesses, it is apparent that risks emerge, and which poses a great threat to businesses collapse. The fact that social media carries more information of all kinds minute after minute; there is a high likelihood of potential serious consequences that could emanate from vital and confidential information being unleashed to public. Studies have documented that nearly a quarter of employees use social media while at work. This has an implication that there is a high risk of vital information being leaked though networking sites (Daft and Marcic 175). Nevertheless, various policies can be used to mitigate these security risks. The following sections articulate on the possible policies. Mitigation measure/policies Creation of social media policies Organization need to create social media policies, including those that relate to privacy issues (Daft and Marcic 178). For example, financial institutions should raise privacy awareness among the employees as one of the communication strategies in implementing such policies. It is the mandate of a company to review its customer verification practices and continue to raise employee and customer awareness about the risks and consequen ces of disclosing sensitive information to a third party. Such awareness includes raising general awareness of best practices for privacy protection on social media and provision of guidance on how to use privacy controls on social media. When posting in any social media, employees and customers need to think before doing so. One should be concerned about the authenticity of information posting, whether that information is appropriate and reasonable, whether it is the personal opinion, whether to make it public, and if it is confidential (Efraim, Narasimha and Ting-Peng 215). This is crucial because the perception of information received by people in the social media varies from one person to another. Some information may be wrongly interpreted and may end up compromising data security and tarnishing corporate brand. In this regard, organizations ought to not only enumerate a comprehensive list of dos and don’ts, but also offer employees ethical guidelines and encourage respo nsible use of social media (Daft and Marcic 178). Employees thus need to be enlightened on the fact that their behavior can not only reflect their positive and negative aspects but also the brand they represent. Since internet usage lacks control of contents posted especially on social media, organizations advertising through these sites should develop a risk strategy (Lovett 319). This should involve performance of a risk

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Nursing Therory Analysis Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Nursing Therory Analysis - Research Paper Example Later on, it was revised so as to be brought into the modern taxonomic fabrication for comfort that often explains comfort to be a nature for accomplishing needs for ease, relief plus transcendence in one’s sociocultural, physical, environmental plus psycho-spiritual settings. In describing deduction, here comfort is described as having associations to some nursing theories so as to help make up a hypothesis. According to the author called Murray in his book published in 1938, he contributed towards providing a sensible structure that helped Kolcaba’s notions sustaining. In addition, Relief became distinguished by an author named Orlando in the year 1961, same to transcendence by Zderad and Paterson in 1976, and ease became distinguished by an author named Henderson in the year 1966. In the year 1975, the idea on behaviors of seeking health was utilized by a person named Schlotfeldt. In regard to retroductive step implementation, Kolcaba ensured that she in culminated the idea of having institutional sincerity incorporated in her comfort theory. In addition, the theory often depicts various personalized patient centered care, plus the given benefits accrued from comfort plus engagement of the habits involved to seek health. Basically, some of the notions found in this given philosophy encompass: Intervening variables, comfort needs, institutional integrity, comfort procedures, comfort including health seeking attitudes or behaviors. According to Kolcaba, comfort is something which needs to originate from a care circumstances which cannot be offered at the same time by a given patient’s maintenance structure. In addition, it is through the set of standards set in nursing that are supposed to assemble the given needs hence captivating patients aspects like maturity, emotional situation, defiance, given support structure, past experience among others which are

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Multiple Regression Empirical Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Multiple Regression Empirical Project - Essay Example A billion dollar increase in net exports holding consumption and direct foreign investments constant leads to 0.47 billion dollar increase in GDP. Considering consumption alone, it was found out that a billion dollar increase in consumption leads to 1.43 billion dollars increase in GDP and that consumption levels explains 99.84% of the total variations in GDP [r2 (60) = 0.9984]. Further, taking foreign direct investments alone, it was found that a billion dollar increase in foreign direct investment leads to 5.33 billion dollars increase in GDP. This model was found to be significant at 5% level of significance and that FDI explains 96.39% of the total variations in GDP Lastly, a billion dollar increase in net exports led to 17.47 billion dollars decrease in GDP and the model with NE alone was found to be significant at 5% level of significance and that NE explains 54.41% of the total variations in GDP. This study aimed at determining the impact of responsible consumption, foreign direct investments and net exports and employed the use of secondary data to proof the objectives. Different writers have argued that consumptions and investments are the key variables on which the GDP depends most. However, other variables like irresponsible consumptions, political un-rests, environmental degradation, and lack of government priorities translate to irresponsible spending are some other factors which should be taken care of for GDP to grow. GDP is the cumulative amount of goods/services which a country produces within a given year (Hall and Mishkin 1982; Hill 1992). When GDP changes, then a country is said to have experienced economic growth (if positive change) and economic melt-down (if negative growth-previous year’s performance is better than current year’s). Factors like level of consumption, direct foreign investments and net exports are some of the factors which contribute to positive GDP growth, hence economic growth (Haron 2005). High direct foreign

Friday, July 26, 2019

Formation of the kindom of saudi arabia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Formation of the kindom of saudi arabia - Essay Example These historical compliments can be but are not limited to the formation of the nation, outside influences that impacted upon this formation, foreign-policy decisions, and the way in which governance has come to be institutionalized and defined. As a function of this level of understanding, this particular analysis will first focus upon a brief history of the formation of Saudi Arabia; concentric upon leadership struggles, directional focus, conquests and subjugation. Similarly, an analysis will be made with regards to the current governmental structure that exists within Saudi Arabia. As such, a discussion of foreign-policy that utilizes the situation of how a sign with regards to how the United States and Saudi Arabia sought to accomplish different goals via the use of diplomacy and other foreign-policy instruments. One cannot begin to understand the nation of Saudi Arabia without first underscoring the importance that Abdulaziz had in creating it. Born in the year 1876 in Riyadh, now capital of Saudi Arabia, he and his family were soon forced to flee Riyadh due to the fact that a powerful tribe named the Al Rashi, a warlord from the Najd tribe, attacked and drove them to the desert town of Al-Murrah; a Bedouin tribe that exists in the very far southern deserts of Saudi Arabia. Only 15 at the time, this experience had a profound and lasting effect on Abdulaziz. Though he was not King at this time, this formative experience in the fact that he had been forced to move from his homeland provided for the impetus that he would later utilize as a means of devouring his studies. While living in the southern deserts of Saudi Arabia, he and his family were able to generate income by forming raiding parties and attacking the tribe that initially drove them from their home. These raids turned out to be rather lucrative and more and more raiders began joining the parties. Although Abdulaziz was still in his teens at this time, this understanding of the power of statecraf t and the means by which organization could affect one’s goals proves to be quite powerful. Soon thereafter, the family moved to Kuwait. It was in Kuwait that Abdulaziz’s formal education began. While there, he studied under the emir Mubarak Al-Sabah. During this time, his studies focused specifically on statecraft in the way in which nations performed, organized and how choices were made. However, perhaps the most defining moment in Abdulaziz life was in the year 1901. This was the year in which he and his half-brother, Mohammed, went back into Saudi Arabia and began organizing further raiding expeditions against Rashid and the Najd. Again, these raids proved effective, and Rashid and the tribes that were loyal to him continued to fall back under the mounting pressures that Abdulaziz placed upon them. With such an understanding, the fateful decision was made in January 1902 that Abdulaziz would attack Riyadh and take back his home. The raid was an astounding success w ith Abdulaziz only using 40 men in order to scale the walls, kill the governor, and exert new leadership over the city. This attack marks the beginning of what became known as the Third Saudi State. Although the capture of Riyadh was an important step in exhibiting control over all of Saudi Arabia, it was nonetheless only the first step. However as a

Audiometry Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Audiometry - Lab Report Example It also assists in assessing the nature, degree, and probable cause of the hearing impairment of s patient. The pure tone audiometry is used in determining the threshold of hearing of the patient. This is defined by the lowest hearing level at which the patient responds at least 51% of the time to auditory stimuli. These thresholds are found using procedures as recommended by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Pure tone threshold testing should be handled in a sound controlled room. This will help in avoiding masking by unacceptable noise levels in the room. An audiogram is composed of three main parts namely, pure tone testing that determines ability to detect sound, and speech testing determines ability to decode sound, and tympanometry which helps in defining where the problem is. The normal hearing ability ranges between 10 - 25 dB HL while for serve cases it ranges between severe 70 - 85 dB HL. For the first patient, the left ear, frequencies between 0-2000(Hz), the hearing ability ranges between -20—50dBHL. As the rate increases past 2000 Hz, the hearing ability increases from -30 to -10 dBHL. However, when the rate hits past 4000 Hz, the hearing ability decreases to -36 dBHL. On the other hand, the right ear, the hearing ability increases gradually except when the frequency reaches 250-500 Hz where the hearing ability remains constant. However, this shows the right ear has a better listening ability. For the second patient, the hearing ability varies between different frequencies. In the left ear, the hearing ability increases between 250-2000 Hz. However, when the frequency goes past 2000 Hz, the hearing ability starts to decrease. This illustrates that when sound frequency goes beyond 2000 Hz, the hearing ability of the left ear becomes null. However, for the left ear, the hearing ability increases. The majority of thresholds are roughly 0 dB HL for a healthy ear. Points under 0 dB HL on the scale designate

Thursday, July 25, 2019

The great depression(conditions leading to the depression) Assignment

The great depression(conditions leading to the depression) - Assignment Example In the early-mid 1920s, production by farmers was far more than the population consumed. Mechanization in production techniques meant there was an increase in output that was expensive thereby putting firms in debts. Falling food production and reduction in land prices resulted in agricultural losses leaving vast populations poor and unemployed. With the demand dropping and supply increasing, the price of products reduced leaving the over-expanded firms short-changed leading to closure (Saint-Etienne, 2013). Top workers had their income rising by 75% while the bottom workers only enjoyed a 9% rise in wages. With industrial production growing by 50% in 1920s, there was wide a gap between high-income earners and those struggling in poverty leading to a reduction in disposable income to purchase the produce. With extensive unemployment, the poor required aid from the already cash-strapped authorities further deepening the financial problems. Explosion of stock markets built on speculation as seen in modern capitalist economy caused investors to buy stock believing it was going to rise quickly so that they could sell their stocks later. Most stock purchases were on credit as investors were required to have 5% of the stock’s value with the rest being supplied by a loan ‘buying on margin’. Speculation together with the short-term outlook of the investors did not offer consistency and stability for the system to yield economic benefits. The resulting tension led to selling of the stock causing a mini crash resulting in mass panic as the middle and upper classes lost money. The presence of numerous small banks with insufficient resources to handle the high demand for their money in conjunction with increasing nervousness about the state of the stock market played a major part in initiating the Great Depression. For this reason, they had to sell assets, borrow off other banks or shut down. Drying up of credit and reduction in lending

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

IKEA case study in strategic management report Essay

IKEA case study in strategic management report - Essay Example IKEA primarily sells furniture along with other home products such as appliances and accessories for kitchens and bathrooms. It sells these in knock-down kits that are ready-to-assemble by the customers themselves who are also resorted to for transportation of the goods to their respective homes. This retail model has been very successful for the company in all its emerging markets, resulting in a sheer increase in size to the point of becoming the largest furniture retailer in the world (Reuters). Their business model wholly focuses on a cost leadership strategy which forms the core of their competitive advantage. As we shall see, IKEA resorts to offer a distinguished appeal by coupling this strategy with various other methods of creating a unique product which not only appeals to those with an urge to maintain a level of quality but also to those looking to cut their purchasing costs. The purpose of this report is to outline its internationalization model and to verify some of the key opportunity areas for growth as well as managing looming risks. Analysis Retail is a fast growing industry in today’s consumer based societies, managing to look out for the needs of consumers directly without the expense of innovation. In today’s business, it has managed to become an important pillar industry of the society, certifying economic and social development in the region it most thrives in. With prosperity comes an improvement in lifestyle and comfort, and with an edge towards affordability, IKEA has sought to cater to the household goods market by passing on its cost leadership strategies to the benefit of consumers in the form of cheaper yet quality-proven products up to a range of 25 to 50 percent. Ever since its inception, IKEA has gradually set up shop in several different countries reaching a grand total of 267 Group stores by the end of 2009, with Germany being the highest selling country by far as a percentage of total sales. Their model incorpora tes the various principles of expansion that in turn harmonize their competitive advantage of price in several other markets. They achieve this by the process of internationalization. Internationalization for a company is a crucial stage of development, as it serves to integrate it into the retail sector for a consumer based economy (Dawson 2007). It not only increases the life cycle of a product, but also attains economies of scale by extending the size of potential markets. In order to pursue this task for any company, it must develop some conceptual strategies IKEA has managed to successfully integrate into other markets with the strategies of cost leadership, focused cost leadership, and focused differentiation. Cost leadership engages in reducing the product costs and ignoring the various market segments that the company caters to, while focusing on a distinct narrow segment, thereby saving on the additional research, analysis and management requirement that necessitate additio nal investment and lead to a rise in manufacturing costs. IKEA does this by allowing the customers to choose, buy, assemble and transport their own goods, passing on the benefit of cost leadership directly to the consumers in the form of a 25 to 50% discount compared to competitor rates. Moreover, IKEA’s Scandinavian image capitalizes on the persistence of quality, so that their target audience of first-time buyers, and elderly people are infused with the perception that

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

SM - Strategic Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

SM - Strategic Management - Essay Example It has a niche market in the soft drink business and has its presence in almost all parts of the world. The extent of the business of the company is evident from the fact that the Coca-Cola Company owns four of the top five soft-drink brands in the world. Some of the best known and most popular brands of the company include Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta, and Sprite. The company also owns other less known but nevertheless popular brands such as Barqs, Minute Maid, POWERade, and Dasani water. In North America, the company has products such as Groupe Danones Evian. Coca-Cola also sells Crush, Dr Pepper, and Schweppes outside Australia, Europe, and North America. The company either makes or licences more than 400 drink products in more than 200 nations. The mission of the company is to create value in the food industry. A SWOT analysis is used to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a company based on many factors such as market data, historical performance of the company, internal and external factors that impinge the companys performance etc. A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis will help to analyse or rather predict the performance of a company in future. It will also give a clear idea as to where the company could be heading with regards to its business performance. Perhaps one of the most important strengths of the company is that it is a world renowned brand. Apart from negative popularity in some countries because of political fallouts, the brand is relatively well known all through the world. Regarding the brand image of the company, the brand is well known and obvious and is easily recognised thanks to the many years that it has been in business. Another important internal strength of the company is that it has a lot of finance at its disposal. The company has been able to generate revenues that are substantially better than most beverage companies. This allows room for the company to expand

Monday, July 22, 2019

Brief History of Istanbul Essay Example for Free

Brief History of Istanbul Essay Evidences obtained from archaeological remains indicate that people began to inhabit the proximities of contemporary Istanbul for approximately thousands of years ago. At about 5000 B. C. , a thick and sprawling population of individuals inhabited the fertile grounds of Istanbul. The Greek people all the way from Megara and Miletus started to rest upon the soils situated along the coasts of the Black Sea as well as the Bosporus back in the latter years of eight century B. C. The year 660 B. C. witnessed the colonization of Byzantium by Byzas, the founder of the colony whose origins trace to Megarian roots. As expected, the name of the colony was patterned after his name. Due to the strategic location of Byzantium, it easily gained dominance over the region in terms of economy which eventually led to the attention of numerous would-be conquerors. Along the path of the Golden Horn, Byzantium was founded which bestowed it with the most suitable harbour all-over the region. The agricultural prosperity of Byzantium can be largely attributed to the abundance of fish as well as the surrounding countryside which was fertile enough to support plants for agriculture. Next to Byzantium, a safe harbour was efficiently provided for by the inlet of the Golden Horn which was near Bosporus. This area was considered as a major maritime route back in those times as it linked the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea. Byzantium eventually found itself struggling amidst the powers trying to conquer and dominate over the city—Persians, Greeks, Spartans and Athenians all drew their swords and took away lives for the sake of taking the city under their control. Such was the major importance of Byzantium during those times where its prosperity was seemingly beyond imagination. Even the Gauls attacked the city during the third century and in 202 B. C. the city sought the help and protection from Rome after being taken over by Macedonians. Eventually, the city was absorbed as a vital part of the Roman empire back in 73 B. C. During 196 A. D. , the city was caught on the wrong side after the creation of a power struggle in the Roman empire. As economically powerful as Byzantium may seem, it was not able to respond and resist the struggle which eventually trickled down the capabilities of the cities as it paid dearly. A large number of the residents were murdered as well as a significant portion of Byzantium was obliterated through the leadership of the Roman emperor Septimus Severus. Apparently, the Rman emperor had to rebuild the entire city starting off with the ruins as the wake of the power struggle. In the process, Byzantium was able to manage itself and continue to progress amidst threats and occurrences of civil wars as well as rebellions which smothered all-over the Roman empire through the many years to follow. However, Constantine I routed his foe, emperor Licinius, on September 18, 324. Constantine I was able to unify the broad territory of the Roman empire and made it follow his leadership. The Roman empire eventually made Byzantium as the prime capital of the region which extended to as far as three continents. Byzantium eventually gained a new name—Constantinople—after being briefly known as the New Rome named in honor of Constantine who was the first Roman ruler to embrace the doctrines of Christianity. During its time, Constantinople gained much reputation and wealth making it one of the world’s most economically advanced cities. The city was almost untouchable in status, having the power to dictate the doctrines of the Christian religion and to amass huge amounts of wealth up until the eleventh century. As the meeting points between the East and the West became largely attributed to Constantinople, it was no surprise that all roads were now focused on the wealthy city of Constantine. In 395 A. D. the whole of the Roman Empire was divided into the West and the East especially after the death of Theodosius. The Eastern Roman Empire adopted Constantinople as its central city or capital which was later referred to as the Byzantine Empire as a reminder of its brilliant past. Through the course of time, Constantinople further advanced as the core of the Greek Orthodox Christian realm. With its immense financial resources, the wealth of the Byzantine Empire gave it the capacity to transform Constantinople as a beautiful city far beyond compare. The splendour and majesty of Constantinople is perhaps owed to the well-paid architects who designed majestic churches and splendid palaces as well as artists and sculptors also contributed a large fraction of the city’s aesthetic transformation. One notable structure ever to be erected is the hippodrome which could hold more than a hundred thousand spectators. Eventually, the walls of the city were further built into a seemingly impenetrable protective layer as threats of invasion from rivalling forces never dwindled. Almost half million citizens inhabited Constantinople under the rule of Emperor Justinian from 527 to 565 A.  D. The Emperor took full control of the creation of some of Constantinople’s most majestic buildings which include the Haghia Sophia, one of the largest churches during the height of the prosperity of Constantinople. The Byzantine empire’s capital reached its full blom under the helm of Emperor Justinian. Even though Constantinople continued to supplement its wealthy advancement with protective measures, enemies from the outside were inevitably attracted to the splendour of the city. A few years after, the city was devastated with a plague in 542 A. D. which claimed the lives of three of every five citizens. This, unfortunately, brought the beginning of the city’s fall. As the city weakened in terms of its population both in size and strength, the enemies of Constantinople took the opportunity to besiege the city. Apparently, the enemies were unable to successfully conquer the city as the walls of Constantinople proved impenetrable. Attacks on the city mounted between the seventh and eleventh century A. D. which include forces from Persian Sassanids, Bulgars, Avars, Russians, and Muslim Arabs. At the time of the Fourth Crusade, the Latins were able to break the walls of Constantinople and captured the capital of the Byzantine Empire in 1204 A.  D until 1261 less than a century of captivity when the Byzantine forces reclaimed the capital. At the height of captivity, however, Constantinople was greatly diminished in terms of wealth and infrastructure as the invading forces plundered precious jewels and any other item they deemed were of sufficient value. The entire population diminished to half a hundred thousand during that time, and the citizens suffered greatly from famine. In 1396, the Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople and built a fort on the Asian side of the Bosporus Sea in order to hinder aid from reaching the city. However, the capital would not fall for a few more years. On the 29th day of May, the Ottoman leader Mehmed was able to tear down the city walls and penetrate the city which ultimately signalled the fall of the era of Constantinople’s Christian church and the commencement of Muslim rule over the land. Apparently, the Muslims transformed the Haghia Sophia into a Muslim temple. In 1457, the capital of the Byzantine Empire was already known as Istanbul which later became the central point of the Ottoman Empire. Mehmed began to repopulate the city after the siege and within a few years time, Istanbul gained a considerable increase in population, roughly amounting to approximately 50,000 inhabitants. Ottoman Istanbul was able to achieve its peak during the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent, and perhaps the most notable buildings ever to be erected during those times, roughly amounting to 300 buildings, were the creations of chief architect Sinan. These efforts to restructure Ottoman Istanbul were significant as it signalled the dawning of a new Istanbul, one which is uniquely Ottoman in identity. Throughout time, Ottoman Istanbul opened its doors to the outside world in order to obtain a harmonious relationship with the other cities and states. This resulted to the expansion of the city’s population, now having a mixture of different races such as Jews, Christians, Armenians and other citizens. Influence on Ottoman Istanbul rule was apparently being influenced by many different forces from these races. Eventually, Istanbul became influenced with the modernization of the world. Europeans began to build a railroad system which connects the whole continent with Istanbul by the 1870s. As a result, the Ottoman empire became placed under the debt of European powers. These would later result to power struggles from within the empire, complicated all the more by the struggling influences from the Europeans to whom they were indebted with. In consequence, these developments in the Ottoman empire especially in Istanbul uring the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries would signal the downfall of the Ottoman empire and would mark the commencement of the Turkish Republic. Today, Istanbul remains as a fervent reminder of how a city once so powerful became so absorbed into the desire for power which led to its own subjugation and diminishment of power in the following years.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Engine Cooling And Lubrication System

Engine Cooling And Lubrication System Cooling System: Despite the vast improvement in the basic internal combustion engines, around 70% of the energy from the gasoline is converted to heat. As it is not dissipated to the atmosphere on its own, a cooling system is employed for this purpose. Several purposes of the cooling system which it serves by cooling the engine include cooling the engine to keep it from overheating by transferring the heat to the air. This helps avoid the excessive wear and tear at high temperatures, auto-ignition due to hot cylinder which may result in knocking and hence, piston/cylinder failure. It may also incorporate thermal stresses which is not good for the engine itself. Figure . Cooling system and plumbing connection While it serves the purpose of cooling the engine, it also helps the engine to warm up quickly during cold start ups and then maintaining a constant temperature. When the engine is cold, components wear out faster too and the engine is less efficient, emitting more pollution. Types of Cooling System: There are two types of cooling systems found in cars: Air-cooled Liquid-Cooled Air-Cooled Engines: Many small and the medium-sized engines are air-cooled. This category includes most small engines like lawn mowers, chain saws, model airplanes etc. Using the air-cooled system allows both the weight and price of the engine to be kept low, along with reduced complexity of the machine. The air-cooled system is still widely used on most of the motorcycles in use these days. This system utilizes the concept of heat transfer through fins to cool the engine. The cross-sectional area of the fin being larger closer to the head and a reduction in the area as we move further from the engine block. The basic principle on which the air-cooled engines rely on is the flow of air across their external surfaces to remove the excess heat to keep the engine from overheating. The airflow on machines like motorcycles and aircrafts is provided across the surface when the vehicle moves forward. Deflectors and ductwork is incorporated to direct the airflow to the critical locations where more cooling is required. The outer surface of the engine is made from a good conductor of heat and the surface is finned to promote maximum heat transfer, along with which an extra fan is used to increase the air-flow rate; whereas others use the concept of free-convection. These fins are to be properly designed for appropriate cooling effect which is required. Some automobile engines also use exposed flywheels with air-deflectors fastened to the surface. When the engine is in operation, these deflectors create air motion which increases the heat transfer on the finned surface. Even after considering and applying all the measures, the uniform cooling of cylinders is still difficult to achieve on air-cooled engines as compared to the liquid-cooled engines. The figure below shows that the cooling needs are not the same at all the locations. Figure . Variation of heat losses from the fins of an air-cooled aircraft engine. Seventy-one percent of the heat losses occur on the hotter side of the cylinder, containing the exhaust valve. The engine shown was used on a number of different aircrafts. Hotter areas, such as the ones around the exhaust valve and manifold need greater cooling and hence larger finned surface area. Cooling the front of an air-cooled engine which faces the forward motion of the vehicle is much easier and efficient as compared to the back surface of the engine. This may result in temperature differences and thermal expansion problems. Disadvantages: Disadvantages of air-cooled engines are that they: Are less efficient, Are noisier, with greater air flow requirements and no water jacket to dampen the noise, Need a directed air flow and finned surfaces. Advantages: When compared with liquid-cooled engines, air-cooled engines have the following advantages: They are lighter in weight, They cost less, No coolant system failures (e.g., water pump, hoses), No engine freeze-ups, and Faster engine warmup. Liquid-Cooled Engines: In a liquid or water-cooled engine, the engine block is surrounded by a water jacket through which the coolant flows. This allows for a better control of the heat removal from the engine, just by added weight and a more complex system. Very few water-cooled engines use just water as the cooling fluid in the water jackets; this is because the water has a freezing temperature of 0Â °C which is unacceptable as coolant in colder regions, so additives are usually used for better performance. Although water has very good heat transfer properties, but when used alone, it causes rust and corrosion in many of the pipes of the cooling system. Ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) is the antifreeze agent which acts as a rust inhibitor and a lubricant for the water pump. When added to water, it lowers the freezing temperature and raises the boiling temperature of the coolant. The properties of the mixture depend on the ratio in which water and the antifreeze agent are mixed. Pure ethylene glycol should not be used, and even at high concentrations the heat transfer properties of the water are lost as well. The properties of the ethylene glycol water mixture are shown in the table below. In addition to good thermal properties, a coolant should satisfy the following requirements: 1. Chemically stable under conditions of use 2. Non-foaming 3. Non-corrosive 4. Low toxicity 5. Non-flammable 6. Low cost Most commercial antifreezes satisfy these requirements. Many of them are basically ethylene glycol with small amounts of additives. Some commercial engine coolants use propylene glycol as the base ingredient. It is argued that when coolant systems leak or when the coolant becomes aged and is discarded, these products are less harmful to the environment than ethylene glycol. Basic Components: The basic components of a liquid-cooled system is shown below. Figure . Basic liquid-cooled system radiator radiator top hose radiator bottom hose water pump thermostat thermostat housing electric cooling fan thermo-time switch Radiator: The radiator is the part of the cooling system which is responsible for the heat rejection from the coolant and into the atmosphere. The radiator core is usually made up of flattened tubes with aluminum strips (fins) that zigzag between the tubes. These fins effectively transfer the heat contained in the coolant into the air stream to be lost into the atmosphere. On each end of the radiator is a tank made up of plastic to cover the ends. The tubes either run horizontally or vertically between the two tanks. The aluminum-plastic system is more efficient and cost effective. On radiators with plastic end caps, there are gaskets between the aluminum core and the plastic tanks to seal the system and keep the fluid from leaking out. The tanks have a large hose connection, one mounted towards the top of the radiator to let the coolant in, the other mounted at the bottom of the radiator on the other tank to let the coolant back out. On the top of the radiator is an additional opening that is capped off by the radiator cap. Another component in the radiator for vehicles with an automatic transmission is a separate tank mounted inside one of the tanks. Fittings connect this inner tank through steel tubes to the automatic transmission. Transmission fluid is piped through this tank inside a tank to be cooled by the coolant flowing past it before returning to the transmission. Radiator Fans: One or two electric fans are mounted on the back of the radiator close to the engine. These fans used the concept of forced convection to cool the heated coolant going through the pipes in the radiator core. If noticed, this fan starts working once the engine reaches a predefined temperature, after which the cooling by just natural convection during the forward motion of the car cannot be achieved. In the cars with air conditioning, there is an additional radiator mounted in front of the normal radiator. This radiator is called the air conditioner condenser, which also needs to be cooled by the air flow entering the engine compartment. As long as the air conditioning is turned on, the system will keep the fan running, even if the engine is not running hot. This is because if there is no air flow through the air conditioning condenser, the air conditioner will not be able to cool the air entering the interior. Pressure cap reserve tank: The pressure cap is simply a cap which maintains the pressure in the cooling system up to a certain point. If the pressure builds up higher than the set pressure point, the spring loaded valve releases the pressure. Figure . Pressure cap When the pressure in the cooling system reaches the point when the cap needs to release this excess pressure, some amount of coolant is bled off. The coolant which is bled off goes into the reserve tank which is not pressurized, which causes a partial vacuum in the cooling system. The radiator cap on these closed systems has a secondary valve which allows the vacuum in the cooling system to draw the coolant back from the reserve tank into the radiator. Coolant Pump: It is a simple pump which helps in circulation of the coolant around the system. This pump is run using one of the following: A fan belt that will also be responsible for driving an additional component like an alternator or power steering pump A serpentine belt, which also drives the alternator, power steering pump and AC compressor among other things. The timing belt that is also responsible for driving one or more camshafts. The impeller of the pump uses centrifugal force to draw the coolant in from the lower radiator hose and send it under pressure to the engine block. A gasket seals the water pump to the engine block and prevents the flowing coolant from leaking out where the pump is attached to the block. Thermostat: The thermostat is simply a valve that measures the temperature of the coolant, and if the coolant is hot enough it opens to allow the coolant to flow through the radiator otherwise the flow to the radiator is blocked and the fluid is directed to a bypass system that returns the coolant to the engine. Figure . Thermostat The engine is at times allowed to run at higher temperatures of 190-195Â °C; this reduces emissions, moisture condensation inside the engine is quickly burned off improving engine life, and a more complete combustion improving fuel economy. Oil as a Coolant: The oil when used to lubricate the engine also helps to cool the engine. The piston for example gets very little cooling from the coolant in the water jacket or the externally finned surface, so when the back surface of the piston crown is subjected to the oil splash or flow the piston is cooled to some extent. This is very necessary as the piston is one of the hottest elements in the engine. Usually, the oil is sprayed in pressurized systems, and splashed in non-pressurized systems. The oil acts as the coolant on the back face of the piston crown as it absorbs energy and then runs back into the larger reservoir where it mixes with the cooler oil and dissipates this energy into the other engine parts. This splash cooling of the piston is extremely important in small air-cooled engines as well as in automobile engines. A few other engine components other than the piston are also cooled by oil circulation, either by splash or by the pressurized flow from the oil pump. Oil passages through internal components like the camshaft and connecting rods offer the only major cooling these parts are subjected to. As the oil cools the various components, it absorbs energy and its temperature rises. This energy is then dissipated to the rest of the engine by circulation and eventually gets absorbed in the engine coolant flow. Some high-performance engines have an oil cooler in their lubricant circulation system. The energy absorbed by the oil as it cools the engine components is dissipated in the oil cooler, which is a heat exchanger cooled by either engine coolant flow or external air flow. Oil Pump: The gear-type oil pump has a pair of meshing gears. The spaces between the teeth are filled with oil when the gears unmesh. The oil pump obtains oil from the oil pan and sends oil through the oil filter to the oil galleries and main bearings. Some oil passes from the holes in the crankshaft to the rod bearings. Main bearings and rod bearings are lubricated adequately to achieve their desired objectives. In the rotor type oil pump, the inner rotor is driven and drives the outer rotor. As the rotor revolves, the gaps between the lobes are filled with oil. When the lobes of the inner rotor move into the gaps in the outer rotor, oil is forced out through the outlet of pump. An oil pump can also be driven by a camshaft gear that drives the ignition distributor or by the crankshaft. Oil Pan: Oil also flows to the cylinder head through drilled passages that make up the oil gallery, lubricates camshaft bearings and valves, and then returns to oil pan. Some engines have grooves or holes in connecting rods, which provide extra lubrication to pistons and walls of cylinders. Oil Cooler: Oil cooler prevents overheating of oil, by flow of engine coolant past tubes carrying hot oil. The coolant picks excess heat and carries it to the radiator. Oil Filter: The oil from oil pump flows through oil filter before reaching the engine bearings. The oil filter retains the dirt particles and allows only clean filtered oil to pass. The Lubrication system and its types: There are three basic types of oil distribution systems used in engines: Splash, Pressurized, or A combination of these. The crankcase is used as the oil sump (reservoir) in a splash system, and the crankshaft rotating at high speed in the oil distributes it to the various moving parts by splash; no oil pump is used. All components, including the valve train and camshaft, must be open to the crankcase. Oil is splashed into the cylinders behind the pistons and onto the back of the piston crowns, acting both as a lubricant and a coolant. Many small four-stroke cycle engines (lawn mowers, golf carts, etc.) use splash distribution of oil. An engine with a pressurized oil distribution system uses an oil pump to supply lubrication to the moving parts through passages built into the components. A typical automobile engine has oil passages built into the connecting rods, valve stems, push rods, rocker arms, valve seats, engine block, and many other moving components. These make up a circulation network through which oil is distributed by the oil pump. In addition, oil is sprayed under pressure onto the cylinder walls and onto the back of the piston crowns. Most automobiles actually use dual distribution systems, relying on splash within the crankcase in addition to the pressurized flow from the oil pump. Most large stationary engines also use this kind of dual system. Most aircraft engines and a few automobile engines use a total pressurized system with the oil reservoir located separate from the crankcase. These are often called dry sump systems (i.e., the crankcase sump is dry of excess oil). Aircraft do not always fly level, and uncontrolled oil in the crankcase may not supply proper lubrication or oil pump input when the plane banks or turns. A diaphragm controls the oil level in the reservoir of a dry sump system, assuring a continuous flow into the oil pump and throughout the engine. Figure . Lubrication of an engine consisting of a combination of a pressurized system and splash system Oil pumps can be electric or mechanically driven off the engine. Pressure at the pump exit is typically about 300 to 400 kPa. If an oil pump is driven directly off the engine, some means should be built into the system to keep the exit pressure and flow rate from becoming excessive at high engine speeds. A time of excess wear is at engine startup before the oil pump can distribute proper lubrication. It takes a few engine cycles before the flow of oil is fully established, and during this time, many parts are not properly lubricated. Adding to the problem is the fact that often the oil is cold at engine startup. Cold oil has much higher viscosity, which further delays proper circulation. A few engines have oil preheaters which electrically heat the oil before startup. Some engines have pre-oilers that heat and circulate the oil before engine startup. An electric pump lubricates all components by distributing oil throughout the engine. It is recommended that turbocharged engines be allowed to idle for a few seconds before they are turned off. This is because of the very high speeds at which the turbocharger operates. When the engine is turned off, oil circulation stops and lubricated surfaces begin to lose oil. Stopping the oil supply to a turbocharger operating at high speed invites poor lubrication and high wear. To minimize this problem, the engine and turbocharger should be allowed to return to low speed (idle) before the lubrication supply is stopped. Lubrication system in 2-stroke engines: Many small engines and some experimental two-stroke cycle automobile engines use the crankcase as a compressor for the inlet air. Automobile engines which do this generally have the crankcase divided into several compartments, with each cylinder having its own separate compressor. These engines cannot use the crankcase as an oil sump, and an alternate method must be used to lubricate the crankshaft and other components in the crankcase. In these engines, oil is carried into the engine with the inlet air in much the same way as the fuel. When the fuel is added to the inlet air, usually with a carburetor, oil particles as well as fuel particles are distributed into the flow. The air flow then enters the crankcase, where it is compressed. Oil particles carried with the air lubricate the surfaces they come in contact with, first in the crankcase and then in the intake runner and cylinder. In some systems (model airplane engines, marine outboard motors, etc.), the oil is premixed with the fuel in the fuel tank. In other engines (automobiles, some golf carts, etc.), there is a separate oil reservoir that feeds a metered flow of oil into the fuel supply line or directly into the inlet air flow. Fuel-to-oil ratio ranges from 30:1 to 400:1, depending on the engine. Some modern high-performance engines have controls which regulate the fuel-oil ratio, depending on engine speed and load. Under conditions of high oil input, oil sometimes condenses in the crankcase. Up to 30% of the oil is recirculated from the crankcase in some automobile engines. It is desirable to get at least 3000 miles per liter of oil used. Most small lower cost engines have a single average oil input setting. If too much oil is supplied, deposits form on the combustion chamber walls and valves will stick (if there are valves). If too little oil is supplied, excess wear will occur and the piston can freez e in the cylinder. Engines that add oil to the inlet fuel obviously are designed to use up oil during operation. This oil also contributes to HC emissions in the exhaust due to valve overlap and poor combustion of the oil vapor in the cylinders. New oils that also burn better as fuel are being developed for two-stroke cycle engines. Some two-stroke cycle automobile engines and other medium- and large-size engines use an external supercharger to compress inlet air. These engines use pressurized/ splash lubrication systems similar to those on four-stroke cycle engines with the crankcase also serving as the oil sump. Lubricating Oil: The oil used in an engine must serve as a lubricant, a coolant, and a vehicle for removing impurities. It must be able to withstand high temperatures without breaking down and must have a long working life. The development trend in engines is toward higher operating temperatures, higher speeds, closer tolerances, and smaller oil sump capacity. All of these require improved oils compared to those used just a few years ago. Certainly, the technology of the oil industry has to continue to improve along with the technology growth of engines and fuel. Early engines and other mechanical systems were often designed to use up the lubricating oil as it was used, requiring a continuous input of fresh oil. The used oil was either burned up in the combustion chamber or allowed to fall to the ground. Just a couple of decades back, the tolerances between pistons and cylinder walls was such that engines burned some oil that seeped past the pistons from the crankcase. This required a periodic need t o add oil and a frequent oil change due to blowby contamination of the remaining oil. HC levels in the exhaust were high because of the oil in the combustion chamber. Modern engines run hotter, have closer tolerances which keep oil consumption down, and have smaller oil sumps due to space limitations. They generate more power with smaller engines by running faster and with higher compression ratios. This means higher forces and a greater need for good lubrication. At the same time, many manufacturers now suggest changing the oil every 6000 miles. Not only must the oil last longer under much more severe conditions, but new oil is not added between oil changes. Engines of the past that consumed some oil required periodic makeup oil to be added. This makeup oil mixed with the remaining used oil and improved the overall lubrication properties within the engine. The oils in modern engines must operate over an extreme temperature range. They must lubricate properly from the starting temperature of a cold engine to beyond the extreme steady-state temperatures that occur within the engine cylinders. They must not oxidize on the combustion chamber walls or at other hot spots such as the center crown of the piston or at the top piston ring. Oil should adhere to surfaces so that they always lubricate and provide a protective covering against corrosion. This is often called oiliness. Oil should have high film strength to assure no metal-to-metal contact even under extreme loads. Oils should be non-toxic and non-explosive. Some desired qualities of Lubrication oil: Lubricating oil must satisfy the following needs: Lubrication. It must reduce friction and wear within the engine. It improves efficiency by reducing the friction forces between moving parts. Coolant Removal of contaminants Enhancement of ring seal and reduction of blowby Slow corrosion Stability over a large temperature range Long life span Low cost Hydrocarbon Components in Lubricating oil: The basic ingredients in most lubricating oils are hydrocarbon components made from crude oil. These are larger molecular weight species obtained from the distillation process. Additives: Various other components are added to create a lubricant that will allow for the maximum performance and life span of the engine. These additives include: Antifoam agents: These reduce the foaming that would result when the crankshaft and other components rotate at high speed in the crankcase oil sump. Oxidation inhibitors: Oxygen is trapped in the oil when foaming occurs, and this leads to possible oxidation of engine components. One such additive is zinc dithiophosphate Pour-point depressant Antirust agents Detergents: These are made from organic salts and metallic salts. They help keep deposits and impurities in suspension and stop reactions that form varnish and other surface deposits. They help neutralize acid formed from sulfur in the fuel. Anti-wear agents Friction reducers Viscosity index improvers Rating of Lubricating Oils and grades: Lubricating oils are generally rated using a viscosity scale established by the Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE). The higher the viscosity value, the greater is the force needed to move adjacent surfaces or to pump oil through a passage. Viscosity is highly dependent on temperature, increasing with decreasing temperature. In the temperature range of engine operation, the dynamic viscosity of the oil can change by more than an order of magnitude. Oil viscosity also changes with shear, decreasing with increasing shear. Shear rates within an engine range from very low values to extremely high values in the bearings and between piston and cylinder walls. The change of viscosity over these extremes can be several orders of magnitude. Common viscosity grades used in engines are: SAE 5 SAE 10 SAE 20 SAE 30 SAE 40 SAE 45 SAE 50 Common oils available include: SAE 5W-20 SAE 10W-40 SAE 5W-30 SAE 10W-50 SAE 5W-40 SAE 15W-40 SAE 5W-50 SAE 15W-50 SAE 10W-30 SAE 20W-50 Synthetic Oils: A number of synthetically made oils are available that give better performance than those made from crude oil. They are better at reducing friction and engine wear, have good detergency properties which keep the engine cleaner, offer less resistance for moving parts, and require less pumping power for distribution. With good thermal properties, they provide better engine cooling and less variation in viscosity. Because of this, they contribute to better cold-weather starting and can reduce fuel consumption by as much as 15%. These oils cost several times as much as those made from crude oil. However, they can be used longer in an engine, with 24,000 km (15,000 miles) being the oil change period suggested by most manufacturers. Available on the market are various oil additives and special oils that can be added in small quantities to standard oils in the engine. These claim, with some justification, to improve the viscous and wear resistance properties of normal oils. One major improvement that some of them provide is that they stick to metal surfaces and do not drain off when the engine is stopped, as most standard oils do. The surfaces are thus lubricated immediately when the engine is next started. With standard oils it takes several engine rotations before proper lubrication occurs, a major source of wear. Oil filters: Included in most pressurized oil systems is a filtration system to remove impurities from the engine oil. One of the duties of engine oil is to clean the engine by carrying contaminant impurities in suspension as it circulates. As the oil passes through filters that are part of the flow passage system these impurities are removed, cleaning the oil and allowing it to be used for a greater length of time. Contaminants get into an engine in the incoming air or fuel or can be generated within the combustion chamber when other than ideal stoichiometric combustion occurs. Dust and other impurities are carried by the incoming air. Some, but not all, of these are removed by an air filter. Fuels have trace amounts of impurities like sulfur, which create contaminants during the combustion process. Even pure fuel components form some contaminants, like solid carbon in some engines under some conditions. Many engine impurities are carried away with the engine exhaust, but some get into the interior of the engine, mainly in the blowby process. During blowby, fuel, air, and combustion products are forced past the pistons into the crankcase, where they mix with the engine oil. Some of the water vapor in the exhaust products condenses in the crankcase, and the resulting liquid water adds to the contaminants. The gases of blowby pass through the crankcase and are routed back into the air intake. Ideally, most of the contaminants are trapped in the oil, which then contains dust, carbon, fuel particles, sulfur, water droplets, and many other impurities. If these were not filtered out of the oil, they would be spread throughout the engine by the oil distribution system. Also, the oil would quickly become dirty and lose its lubricating properties, resulting in greater engine wear. Figure . Oil Filter Flow passages in a filter are not all the same size but usually exist in a normal bell-shaped size distribution. This means that most larger particles will be filtered out as the oil passes through the filter, but a few as large as the largest passages will get through. The choice of filter pore size is a compromise. Better filtration will be obtained with smaller filter pores, but this requires a much greater flow pressure to push the oil through the filter. This also results in the filter becoming clogged quicker and requiring earlier filter cartridge change. Some filter materials and/or material of too small a pore size can even remove some additives from the oil. Filters are made from cotton, paper, cellulose, and a number of different synthetic materials. Filters are usually located just downstream from the oil pump exit. As a filter is used, it slowly becomes saturated with trapped impurities. As these impurities fill the filter pores, a greater pressure differential is needed to keep the same flow rate. When this needed pressure differential gets too high, the oil pump limit is reached and oil flow through the engine is slowed. The filter cartridge should be replaced before this happens. Figure . Exploded view of an Oil Filter Figure . Pore size distribution for common filters Sometimes, when the pressure differential across a filter gets high enough, the cartridge structure will collapse and a hole will develop through the cartridge wall. Most of the oil pumped through the filter will then follow the path of least resistance and flow through the hole. This short circuit will reduce the pressure drop across the filter, but the oil does not get filtered. There are several ways in which the oil circulation system can be filtered: 1. Full-flow oil filtration. All oil flows through the filter. The filter pore size must be fairly large to avoid extreme pressures in the resulting large flow rate. This results in some larger impurities in the oil. 2. Bypass oil filtration. Only part of the oil leaving the pump flows through the filter, the rest bypassing it without being filtered. This system allows the use of a much finer filter, but only a percentage of the oil gets filtered during each circulation loop. 3. Combination. Some systems use a combination of full-flow and bypass. All the oil first flows through a filter with large pores and then some of it flows through a second filter with small pores. 4. Shunt filtration. This is a system using a full-flow filter and a bypass valve. All oil at first flows through the filter. As the filter cartridge dirties with age, the pressure differential across it needed to keep the oil flowing increases. When this pressure differential gets above a predetermined value, the bypass valve opens and the oil flows around the filter. The filter cartridge must then be replaced before filtering will again occur. Solid lubricants, such as powd

Examining Hacking And Cyber Ethics Philosophy Essay

Examining Hacking And Cyber Ethics Philosophy Essay With technology taking the forefront in communication, world has virtually shrunk! Distance and time are no more any hindrances for effective interactions and communications. Internet has so much invaded our day to day lives that without internet, we feel we are almost without bread! As any advances bring in good , not so good and bad with it-take auto mobiles, electricity, movies whatever-even the communication technology has its own goods and bads. Hacking is something that has shocked the world that is so much dependent on the cyber for its day to day affairs, may it be individual corporate or education fields. Hacking and Hacker Hacking is an action of trying to gain access to a computer or computer network without any legal authorization [1]. The entity who tries the act of hacking is the hacker. The new hacker dictionary defines hacker as below: A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary. One who programs enthusiastically (even obsessively) or who enjoys programming rather than just theorizing about programming. A person capable of appreciating hack value. A person who is good at programming quickly. An expert at a particular program, or one who frequently does work using it or on it. An expert or enthusiast of any kind. One might be an astronomy hacker, for example. One who enjoys the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming or circumventing limitations. [deprecated] A malicious meddler who tries to discover sensitive information by poking around. Hence password hacker, network hacker. The correct term for this sense is cracker. Hacker is someone who has an intention to damage a system and hence invades it illegally [2]. He or she might invade into the system to get illegitimate access to resources. As hacking becomes easier, a vulnerable computer will be the earlier target. Hacker invariably tries to hide his or her identity for launching attacks on the main site, which is generally more secure. The attack is made with an intention of gaining control of the targeted system so that the hacker can execute, edit or delete any file on the users directory. This is achieved generally by gaining access to the super-user account. This helps the hacker hide his presence and provides him maximum authority to access the data. Software bugs are generally used in the attacks which give the hacker super-user status. Ethics and Cyber Ethics That branch of art which looks with wonder at the marvels and mysteries of the world is philosophy. It leads to life with passion, moral and intellectual integrity. Socrates had once stated the unexamined life is not worth living. In philosophy. Everything related to life is critically and comprehensively inquired in to. The branch of philosophy that deals with how we ought to live, with the ideas as to what is right and wrong, and with idea of Good is ethics [3]. The field of ethics that examines legal, moral and social issues in the use and development of cyber technology is cyber ethics [4]. A broad spectrum of technologies that range from standalone computers to a cluster of network computing, information and communication technologies is referred to as cyber technology. Computer ethics has been the general usage term for cyber ethics until recently. Computer ethics however suggests the study of ethical issues associated primarily with computing profession or computing machines. Cyber ethics however attempts to address ethical issues that are more wider and deeper. Other terminologies like internet ethics or information ethics are in use but cyber ethics has wider coverage than internet ethics. 1.3 Legal and Illegal Hacking The informal trespassing into a computer is termed as hacking by many people. Hacking in general has formed a meaning of breaking into computers [5]. The term hacking clouds ethical and legal complexities of law that administrates use of computers. Some hacking is legal and valuable while some are illegal and destructive. Learning the way to get access is legal while using this information to access the system and misuse it is illegal hacking. It is very important to understand the difference between legal and illegal hacking. This could be understood considering an example. For example, the security researcher of the system will learn a number of ways to get into the system without authorization. While learning this information is not illegal, using the information to access a system unauthorisedly is illegal. An action can be considered legal or illegal based on the scenario and the access and authorisation for the particular scenario. 1.4 Ethical Theories Ethical issues are based on morals which are subjective. The ethical theories offer direction for the moral analysis to be made. These are the scientific theories that provide the framework for the analysis of moral issues. We may look into ethical theories relevant to the case in hand. 1.4.1 Consequence Based ethical theories (consequentialism) Consequence based theories judge actions based on results. Proponents of these theories assume that certain state of affairs are better than many others. Actions that lead to better state for maximum number of people are better actions. In simple words, an action that makes the world better is a good action and that worsens the world is bad. Hence here, result is most important. Three subdivisions of consequentialism emerge based on who is benefited by the action: Ethical Egoism: an action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable only to the agent performing the action. Ethical Altruism: an action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone except the agent. Utilitarianism: an action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone.(QuoteIEP) Types of Utilitarianism Two types of Utilitarianism are there namely Act Utilitarianism and Rule Utilitarianism. Under Act Utilitarianism, an action is considered good or bad based on its consequences while under Rule Utilitarianism, a code or rule of conduct is more acceptable if the consequences of it are beneficial than not beneficial to every one. For ex. If one steals, it may be beneficial to him but not to all. So the rule is not to steal. Intended Consequentialism Intended consequentialism is a consequence based ethical theory. Here, intended consequence is given importance over actual consequence in judging an action. 1.4.2 Duty Based ethical theories Duty based ethics is otherwise called deontological theory. Deon is a Greek word meaning necessary, binding, obligatory. Immanuel Kant is the main proponent of this theory. It gives importance to sticking to ones duty and principle rather than the consequences. When most stick to Deontological principles, naturally, consequences will be good. The focus is on duty and principle and not on consequences. An other famous philosopher W.D. Ross who supported Kants theory, summarized basic duties as below: Duty of beneficence: A duty to help other people (increase pleasure, improve character) Duty of non-maleficence: A duty to avoid harming other people. Duty of justice: A duty to ensure people get what they deserve. Duty of self-improvement: A duty to improve ourselves. Duty of reparation: A duty to recompense someone if you have acted wrongly towards them. Duty of gratitude: A duty to benefit people who have benefited us. Duty of promise-keeping: A duty to act according to explicit and implicit promises, including the implicit promise to tell the truth.(M2) Character based Ethical Theories Character based virtue ethics is also called Virtue ethics. These theories are mostly based on Aristolephilosophy. Here, individuals character takes prime place over duty or consequence, in contrast Deontology and Consequentialism respectively. Here, the tenet is once the person has strong value system which has stabilized, he would be conscious of what is wrong and what is right, what are his duties to his children, family, society and his master, so, action taken by such persons tend to have good consequences only. An ethical individual is therefore necessarily disposed to do good things acceptable to himself and for society. 1.5 Role of software/Hardware/Application Engineers Hacking has become a threat to modern world which is over dependent on information technology. It is easier done than said that, as you keep your valuable protected in house against thieves and robbers by locking the almirah or the house or safe keeping in banks or covering by insurance. As we use lot of IT services through public domains and distant server based technologies, the risks are even more. Professionals in the field can do their bit based on their knowledge and experience to reduce damages by hacking. Objectives The objectives of this case study are: Highlight the main critical issues that this case brings out light and to critically apply consequence-based, Duty-based and character-based ethical theories to discuss whether the FBI were correct in attempting to capture and prosecute Mitnick. Briefly discuss the general of asoftware/hardware/application engineer in terms of the use dof their knowledge and expertise in regard to hacking. Facts of the case While dealing with the case in hand from the point of the objectives of the case study, we have to critically observe the facts from the following angles. Actions of Mitnick that are subject of ethical and moral nature

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Great Barrier Reef :: essays research papers

One topic that came to mind while researching this paper was the Great Barrier Reef, which I had wanted to research for my presentation, but information was more abundant for the topic I did choose. The size of the reef and its tourist potential are great in their respective ways.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The reef is the largest of its kind extending 2300 km along the North East Coast of Australia from Cape York to the northern part of South Queensland. Most may believe that the reef alone is one large organism, but is amazingly a network of roughly 2900 individual reefs to form one large reef that is roughly the size of the U.K.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The remains of what are called polyps form the reef. New polyps grow everyday, which means that the reef is growing still today. The dead polyps form the white structures of the reef while the live polyps give it its color. For the reef to survive, the waters around it must be greater than 18 degrees Centigrade, the sunlight must be able to penetrate the water, and the water must be clean and salty.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As I stated previously, this is the most extensive reef system anywhere in the world. It is also the largest structure that is made completely of living organisms. It is the breeding area of a number of marine life and endangered species. The humpback whale travels here from the Antarctic to give birth to their young. Also, six of the seven species of sea turtle travel here to breed on the reef.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The entire ref is a marine park with zones that have different uses of water activities with the exception of fishing or collecting. These activities extend to the actual life in the reef. The corals are an animal in the jellyfish family, but they contain a solid limestone skeleton. During the day, the coral put themselves into the form of the skeleton to camouflage as a rock to hide from their predators.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The plants of the reef are not very visible, but are important food to the life that lives on and around the reef. They produce sugars through photosynthesis, which the coral absorb for up to 90% of their food. The corals provide shelter for the plants and are a good source of carbon dioxide.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There are also over 1500 different kinds of fish that call the reef home, and each had their own job to keep the reef healthy.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Collegiate Athletes Have A Different College Experience Essay -- Athle

Collegiate Athletes Have A Different College Experience Everyone has his or her own ideas of what the ‘college experience’ should include and be like. Some thoughts on the subject include going out a lot, meeting lots of new people, and dating many different people. Other people consider it the education, and finding someone to settle down with. â€Å"The college experience means your academic and social experiences you have during your time in college. They are the friends you meet, and hang out with. The classmates you meet and work with, and also the professors you deal with in your years at school,† said Tyler Grogan, a senior football player. Are athletes in college getting the same experience as the non-athlete students, or do practices and other sport related events take up too much time? Do all of the practices, games, weight lifting, and time spent in the training room interfere with their learning, or more with their social life? For the majority of the varsity athletes at Northeastern, their commitment to their team leaves little time to be involved in much else. The transition from high school to college can be a difficult one. Young people must deal with making new friends, learning how to manage time and their newfound freedom, and getting used to being away from home. In coming to college there is more responsibility put on oneself. Students no longer have teachers taking attendance every day, and reminding them about all of their assignments. If the student does not go to class in high school, their parents are notified; in college there are no checkups. If students choose to not go to class, then they usually end up failing. Because of the involvement with athletics, is it easier for athletes coming in to c... by, and to get a degree, and not worry about their GPA. For most female athletes the chance to play their sport professionally is very slim, so they tend to put more stock into their class work and school. The two teams with the highest GPA here at Northeastern University are the women’s volleyball team and the women’s hockey team. The five-year program here at Northeastern offers the student-athlete to simply be a student for a year. Tyler Grogan found that once his eligibility for football was over, he had a lot more time. With his extra time he has been able to meet a few more people, and has more time to spend with them because he no longer has football to take up the majority of his time. In general student-athletes just have less time to spend doing anything besides their sport. The college experience is different for them, but not necessarily better. Collegiate Athletes Have A Different College Experience Essay -- Athle Collegiate Athletes Have A Different College Experience Everyone has his or her own ideas of what the ‘college experience’ should include and be like. Some thoughts on the subject include going out a lot, meeting lots of new people, and dating many different people. Other people consider it the education, and finding someone to settle down with. â€Å"The college experience means your academic and social experiences you have during your time in college. They are the friends you meet, and hang out with. The classmates you meet and work with, and also the professors you deal with in your years at school,† said Tyler Grogan, a senior football player. Are athletes in college getting the same experience as the non-athlete students, or do practices and other sport related events take up too much time? Do all of the practices, games, weight lifting, and time spent in the training room interfere with their learning, or more with their social life? For the majority of the varsity athletes at Northeastern, their commitment to their team leaves little time to be involved in much else. The transition from high school to college can be a difficult one. Young people must deal with making new friends, learning how to manage time and their newfound freedom, and getting used to being away from home. In coming to college there is more responsibility put on oneself. Students no longer have teachers taking attendance every day, and reminding them about all of their assignments. If the student does not go to class in high school, their parents are notified; in college there are no checkups. If students choose to not go to class, then they usually end up failing. Because of the involvement with athletics, is it easier for athletes coming in to c... by, and to get a degree, and not worry about their GPA. For most female athletes the chance to play their sport professionally is very slim, so they tend to put more stock into their class work and school. The two teams with the highest GPA here at Northeastern University are the women’s volleyball team and the women’s hockey team. The five-year program here at Northeastern offers the student-athlete to simply be a student for a year. Tyler Grogan found that once his eligibility for football was over, he had a lot more time. With his extra time he has been able to meet a few more people, and has more time to spend with them because he no longer has football to take up the majority of his time. In general student-athletes just have less time to spend doing anything besides their sport. The college experience is different for them, but not necessarily better.

The Resolution of Conflicts Essay -- Literary Analysis, The Bet

â€Å"To live anyhow is better than not at all† (Chekhov 1) , the short story, The Bet commenced with the conflict when the person had no choice but to choose between the death penalty or life in prison. The Bet was originally written by Anton Chekhov, a profound Russian short-story writer who concentrated a lot on human values and the reflection of the extravagantly selfish Russian nobility. And through The Bet he was able to express all those ideas in two sides, the banker and the lawyer with the conflict along the story line. The author introduced the story with a momentary flashback that the banker recalled at night what happened in the past instead of going directly to the party from fifteen years ago. Well, this flashback style for opening suggests that the event on the party from fifteen years ago was unforgettable. Moreover, this introduction style helps to pull the audience’s attention and curiosity out more effectively. On that night, the banker and the lawyer made a bet based on the idea between life imprisonment and death penalty. The argument began with the banker’s strong statement â€Å"Capital punishment kills a man at once, but lifelong imprisonment kills him slowly. Which executioner is the more humane, he who kills you in a few minutes or he who drags the life out of you in the course of many years?† (Chekhov, 1) and the lawyer had chosen lifelong imprisonment by indicating that â€Å"To live anyhow is better than not at all† (Chekhov, 1). To prove his philosoph y righteously, the lawyer agreed to stay for fifteen years in the basement of the banker’s house without the acknowledgement of the surface world. In exchange for those imprisoned years, the banker would give the lawyer two million dollars if the lawyer succeeded with... and the banker had faced a lot of crisis when they decided to make the bet, endure the consequences on both sides for making the bet and make the final resolution or solution. Life is priceless freedom, being able to live is better than accepting death. However, life is too short and unexpected; you would die tomorrow or the second later. Therefore, The Bet signifies that everyone should not need to fight over pretty things like money and power because it’s learning that makes man valuable not the money (knowledge is power and money is imprisonment). Everyone just lives to the fullest and appreciate every slightest moment, event, thing and people who appear in their life. Even that moment is sorrowful but every suffering has some meaning in this world that helps us to grow and develop our unique identity, overcome obstacles and treasure ourselves with others.