Wednesday, April 3, 2019

Examining The Study Of Rational Choice Theories Criminology Essay

Examining The Study Of sane Choice Theories Criminology EssayWithin the flagitious Justice field, the goal is to reduce abominable offense by utilizing methods that may disapprove offenders from shoot downting a heinous act. The aspects that argon going to be explored in this holograph volition thinking(prenominal)ise how Rational Choice possibleness and nuisance saloon techniques refer to one an otherwise. Situational Crime ginmill (SCP) techniques will focus on diametric types of offenders, their annoyances and the success rate of cake in different levels of evil application. Further more, about case studies view been reviewed to give a comparison of hinderance techniques of crime and its personal effects. The following research will discuss negative effects and its alarming c one timern for SCP techniques.Examining the get a line of rational prize theories and how helpful it push aside be in crime preventionAcademic Scholars, on with justness enforce han dst officials review fell activity in the event to develop methods for which crime may be prevented. Having an understanding of the theory reviewed will further ex sound off the approach investigators take when apprehending perpetrators, interviewing witnesses, and interacting with dupes. The research will explore many different views of scholars and the differences in crimes that advise be committed. The theory that has been discussed is Rational Choice Theory. Rational Choice Theory is a perspective that criminality is a conscience choice that predicts that individuals choose to commit crime for the sole purpose of the benefits outweighing the damage of the crime (Schmalleger, 2006). This manuscript will provide information on the scrutiny of Situational Crime Prevention (SCP) and how the examples of the methods given make been successful.Literature ReviewVerma (2007) wrote an member that discusses the approach of situational crime prevention and how it pertains to raft cas ualties. His article, with assistance of I.K. Mackenzie (1982) recommends a atomic number 23 stage action plan that may dissolve mass casualties in advance they start (to be discussed later). Verma argues that enforcement officials should work harder on strategies to get out leadership skills in the event of a riot.Vance and Trani (2008) focus on crime prevent in innocence collar crimes. Many individuals in our society believe that white collar crime is non as heinous an act as other crimes. The issue Vance and Trani deprivation to address is that white collar croup be a larger issue if overlooked.Schmalleger (2006) is one of the many scholars who have developed books on criminology and its success in educating future scholars. He introduced to other scholars what situational Crime Prevention (SCP) truly sum and how understanding crime better could assist in understanding the criminals. The debate that Schmalleger has with other scholars is the intemperatey in which crimina ls ar zepject to become repeat offenders.Cullen and Agnew (2006) comprised a reading text called Criminological theory past to present, 3rd edition. It discusses the comparison make by Clarke and Cornish of classical theory and economic theory and the strong liaison these theories have to rational choice theory. Furthermore, the text continues to process this choice by defining two major stages that are important to know closely rational choice theory.Ratcliffe (2006) developed a manuscript on film surveillance in public places that may deter criminal activity in which he provided information about a closed spell television (CCTV) surveillance system. He explains what CCTV is and how it was developed to prevent crime and in any case how the development of this system brought unintended consequences.A chart, established by Clarke adumbrate 25 techniques ( kernel for Problem Oriented Policing, 2010) that may be useful in the SCP theory. The chart is broken down into five cat egories and examines different parts of criminal activity. Clarke further breaks down the categories into subsections to explain the techniques correctly in accordance with the category. almost(prenominal) other studies have been reviewed and analyzed to provide information or examples of Clarkes SCP techniques (Center for Problem Oriented Policing, 2010). The crimes that will be incorporated with this study in further depth are the security requisites of passenger on public transportation (Smith, 2008), closing off opportunities for crime with alley-gating (Bowers, Johnson, and Hirschfield, 2004), and crime in libraries incorporating all five of Clarkes SCP techniques (Cromwell, Alexander, and Dotson, 2008). For the entire criteria of Clarkes 25 techniques, check out Appendix A.Discussion in that location are many different ways to explain Rational Choice theory and how it is incorporated to Situational Crime Prevention (SCP). Schmalleger (2006) defined SCP as a social policy t hat looked to develop a greater understanding of crime and with strategies concerning the organizational and environments that make crime possible. some other academic scholars go on to state that Rational Choice Theory is a choice process that go bys in two stages First, the criminal will imply to decide if he wants to engage in crime to fill up his needs and second is when the decision is made to engage in criminal activity, what particular offense will he commit (Cullen, and Agnew, 2006).However, the best or most innovative explanation was developed by Clarke with his twenty-five techniques of situational crime prevention (Vance and Trani, 2008). The techniques in the chart give examples of SCP and how each category and sub sections apply to a criminal act. The categories of the chart are divided in to five groups, which are increase the effort. augment the risk, reduce the rewards, reduce provocations, and lead excuses. This manuscripts main focus is to discuss the two cat egories that are committed to rational choice theory and situational crime prevention. The first category happens to be change magnitude the efforts, which has a subsection of target hardening and deflecting offenders and the second category is change magnitude the risks, which has a subsection of extend guardianship and beef up formal surveillance.Increase the EffortThe Situational Crime Prevention (SCP) subsection category of deflecting the offender is use by creating a separation for men and women in public contacts, which in turn does non give offenders the opportunity to crap a alive(p) spot for their victims (Innes, 2003). For example, most conjure offenders have a tendency to abuse certain women that appear to be vulnerable or less war-ridden then they are. There was a study performed on several sex offenders and the process they go through in order to hunt their victims. The study discussed the rational choice the perpetrators make so that the outcome of the assaul t gives them pleasure.The kickoff point of the crime is where the offenders seek to benefit themselves by their criminal bearing that this involves the making of decisions and of choices, however rudimentary on occasion these processes might be and that these processes exhibit a measure of rationality (Beauregard, Rossmo, and Proulx, 2007). The separation that has been made for men and women in public places are the development of men and women restrooms and changing areas in department stores. With these adjustments, crime in public still occur still committing assault is in public would appear to be more difficult and offenders would have to make more of an effort to assault their victims.Everyone in the pronounces rear end remember what they were doing or where they were at the time of the kinfolk 11 attacks. Since the attack, transportation in this country and around the world has experienced some form of target hardening. When a passenger steps into an airport, bus or tra in station, the passenger is checked almost from head to toe. This policy is more abundant in airports but in major cities, passengers on a train or bus are still checked in an attempt to prevent a nonher major attack since 9/11.There was an article by M. J. Smith (2008) that addressed the needs of women passengers taking public transportation. Smith goes on to address four key elements for analyzing the security need of women passenger, and they are (1) womens reported victimization, (2) issues related to calculating the risk of be a crime victim, (3) the rationality of womens fear of crime and disorder, and (4) the need for effective and comprehensive crime prevention measures to address those security-related issues. These concerns and policies have made transportation more equipped with metal detectors, more uniformed and plain clothes officer stationed in subways, airports, and train stations, along with additional luggage tagging and inspections.Increase the RisksStrengtheni ng the observations of society may help in preventing individuals from proper a victim. For example, many crimes happen during the holiday season and for good effort because individuals get wrapped up in the three Ps, which are presents, parties, and planning. Families are planning to go on vacations for the holiday season, friends are filling out outfits for all the parties they will be attending and presents will be exchanged among co-workers before the end of business day. The crimes that are more commonalty during the holiday season are burglary and theft. Kane (2008) suggest that world aware of your surrounding and recognizing motivated offenders will help prevent individuals from becoming a victim during the holiday season. That does not mean taking matters into your own hands it means to practice organism alert when out enjoying the festivities of the holidays.One way to being more alert is to ask a neighbor or a friend to house sit for you while you are off on vacation. You prat direct this individual to check on your house once a day or every other day in order to give off the impression that someone is home. If you live in a community with police patrol, you can ask for the officer or security to check on your home in your absence. Or you can develop a form of prevention that closes off opportunities for crime. Bowers, Johnson, and Hirschfield (2004) studied a recently introduced prevention technique in Great Britain that involved commensurate a gate to several alleyways along the back of terraced properties to restrict entree to local residents and reduce the offenders opportunity to commit a crime. The study was performed on homes that were narrow in space and could be connected to other dwellings for the purpose of the experiment. The alley-gates could secure an entire block and all the houses at bottom this radius. The gate will be accessible with a key for which and the residents will have and in that respect will be a demarcation l ine to the number each household can acquire. This study demonstrated that a small gated community had reduced its burglary attempts in comparison to communities that were not gated. goggle box surveillance is one way police can deter offenders from committing crimes. By upgrading the performance of surveillance, it is less likely that a criminal will want to commit a crime because of the risk of apprehension.When victimisation the method of strengthening surveillance, one of the most employed surveillance technologies is closed-circuit television (CCTV). CCTV is a number of tv cameras connected to a loop or closed circuit, with images produced being sent to a monitoring station (Ratcliffe, 2006). Using this type of surveillance is predominately for large groups of people that congregate in areas that are too grand for regular patrol. For example, colleges campuses, sports arenas, department stores and major club venues are the kinds of establishments that CCTV systems are employe d. The cameras are placed in locations that may be more flat for criminal activity which will allow the individual run the camera access to see what the actual crime has or will be committed. There has even been an incident or two where the individual operating the cameras has given a warning to other individuals making them aware that they can be seen committing some type of foul play on camera. The chief(a) goal of utilizing video surveillance is to increase the perceived risk of clutch in the hope that any measure of the offenders improprieties will have them reconsidering to commit a crime (Ratcliffe, 2006).SCP ApplicationAmong the Situational Crime Prevention (SCP) examples stated above, there have been several other studies that represented SCP and its effects on the prevention of crime. One study discussed the situational crime prevention approach when dealing with mass causalities or riots. This research suggested that riots could be prevented by aligning practical guide lines and metaphysical considerations by a recommended five-stage action plan. The stages incorporated are (1) attempt to identify, confiscate and remove those individuals who precipitate the incident before the throng begins to organize, (2) break the crowd into smaller groups to disrupt communications, (3) quickly deal with the crowds leaders and remove from the spot, (4) create diversions in other places, so there is no focus, and (5) do not let the crowd gain strength in numbers (Verma, 2007).In the article, Crime and Incivilities in Libraries, Clarkes five SCP techniques are explored and further examined to bring on how crimes such as theft, vandalism, and assault have reared its head into the library. Cromwell, Alexander, and Dotson (2008) conclude that the crimes mentioned above, along with problems with disruptive patrons can be substantially reduced by the death penalty of SCP strategies and a well-conceived security plan for staff training. The research discussed more incivilities that could occur while at or in a library, however they were not addressed in this manuscript.Unintended ConsequencesWith any research or study, there are concerns that are discussed that will possibly bring about some negativity towards any technique, theory or experiment. Situational Crime Prevention (SCP) is not perfect and it has its concerns with an issue of transmutation. Ratcliffe (2006) describes displacement as offenders moving their offending to a place that has less risk of being caught. For example, an offender may not want to rob a jewelry store if he can see that there is a camera system set in place to identify him. This is a concern for the perpetrators because in the rational choice theory, a criminal wants to seek the benefits from the act with the least amount of punishment. The widening for unintended consequences are not high, however the concerns still prove that displacement can occur and using current SCP may reduce a higher percentage in the f uture.ConclusionWithout the hard work performed by researches, investigators, and academic scholars the study of rational choice theory and its assistance in situational crime prevention (SCP) may not have been explored. SCP is an important and useful tool in the prevention of crime. The research and studies mentioned in this manuscript on the prevention of crime have been reviewed in all types of criminal offenses. The SCP techniques have assisted in giving steps to maintain order in riot situations, white collar crime and women passenger travel using public transportation. These SCP techniques may prevent criminal activity in places that offenders hold up easier to victimize individuals but it does not deter criminals from seeking pleasure in other venues that are not affected by preventive solutions.ReferencesBeauregard, E., Rossmo D. K., Proulx, J. (2007). A descriptive model of the hunting process of serial sex offenders A rational choice perspective. Journal of Family Violen ce. 22(6). 449-463. Retrieved October 20, 2010 from ProQuest database.Bowers, J. K., Johnson, D. S., Hirschfield, G. F. A. (2004). Closing off opportunities for crime An evaluation of alley-gating. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. 10.285-308. Retrieved on October 15, 2010 from ProQuest database.Center for Problem Oriented Policing (2010). Twenty five techniques of situational prevention. Retrieved January 12, 2010 from http//www.popcenter.org/25techniques/.Cromwell, P., Alexander, G., Dotson, P. (2008). Crime and incivilities in libraries Situational crime prevention strategies for thwarting biblio-bandits and problem patrons. security measure Journal. 21. 147-158. Retrieved July 18, 2010 from ProQuest database.Cullen, T. F., Agnew, R. (2006). Criminological Theory bypast to present, 3rd edition. Los Angeles, CA Roxbury Publishing Company.Innes, B. (2003). Profile of a criminal question How psychological profiling helps solve true crimes. Pleasantville, NY/Mo ntreal Readers brave Association, Inc.Kane, M. (2008). A Guide for a Safe and Crime-Free Holiday. Thrive Journal. Retrieved October 17, 2010 from Mountain State University.Ratcliffe, J. (2006). Video surveillance of public places. Washinton D. C. U. S. Department of Justice.Schmalleger, Frank (2006). Criminology today An consolidative introduction, 4th edition. Columbus, OH Prentice Hall.Smith, M. J. (2008). Addressing the security needs of women passengers on public transport. Security Journal. 21. 117-133. Retrieved July 18, 2010 from ProQuest database.Vance, N. Trani, B. (2008). Situational prevention and the reduction of white collar crime. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics. 9-18. Retrieved September 18, 2010 from ProQuest database.Verma, A. (2007). Anatomy of riots A situational crime prevention approach. Crime Prevention and biotic community Safety. 9. 201-221. Retrieved September 20, 2010 from ProQuest database.

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